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Normal Values in Radiology

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NORMAL VALUES IN RADIOLOGY Adrenal glands 1 cm thick (both limbs), 4 - 6 cm length Aorta 3 cm/2.5 cm @ the diaphragm/2.0 cm @ the mid-abdomen, and 1.8 cm @ the bifurcation. Greater than 5 cm has increased risk of rupture. Appendix 6 mm Appendix wall 3 mm Azygous vein 6 mm / 10 mm Upright films/supine films Bladder wall 3 mm / 5 mm Distended/non-distend bladder Blood (acute hemorrhage) 40-60 Houndsfield units Bronchi (proximal) 2.4 cm Tracheobronchomegaly (Mournier- Kuhn dis
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  NORMAL VALUES IN RADIOLOGY  Adrenal glands < 1 cm thick (both limbs), 4 - 6 cm length  Aorta 3 cm/2.5 cm @ the diaphragm/2.0 cm @ the mid-abdomen, and 1.8 cm @ the bifurcation. Greater than 5 cm has increased risk of rupture.  Appendix < 6 mm  Appendix wall < 3 mm  Azygous vein 6 mm / 10 mm Upright films/supine films Bladder wall 3 mm / 5 mm Distended/non-distend bladder Blood (acute hemorrhage) 40-60 Houndsfield units Bronchi (proximal) < 2.4 cm Tracheobronchomegaly (Mournier- Kuhn disease) Bronchus intermedius posterior wall < 2 mm Carina angle < 60 degrees Sign of left atrial enlargement Cervix (in pregnancy) > 3 cm length < 3 cm length is cervical shortening Colon < 5 cm Colon cecum < 8 cm > 10 cm is at increased risk of perforation > 12 cm is toxic megacolon Colon wall < 3 mm With lumen distended Common bile duct 7 mm Cysts 10-15 Houndsfield units Duodenum see small bowel Endometrium 3-15 mm / 5 mm Pre-menopausal/post-menopausal Esophagus < 3 mm wall thickness In a distended esophagus Fallopian tubes 12 14 cm Gallbladder 5 x 10 cm Gallbladder (lumen) 4 cm Gallbladder wall 3 mm Gastric folds < 1 cm in the fundus < 5 mm in the antrum Heart size (Cardiothoracic index) < 0.55 on PA, < 0.60 on AP AP view less reliable Ileum See small bowel Interlobar artery (right) < 16 mm in males, < 15 mm in females Measured on a PA film, immediately lateral to the portion of the bronchus intermedius. Intrahepatic ducts 2 mm IVC < 28 mm Jejunum See small bowel Kidney 9 - 13 cm or 3 - 4 lumbar vertebral bodies  Avg. length is 11 cm Large bowel (lumen) 6 cm  Large bowel wall 3 mm Liver < 15 cm Liver CT attenuation 8 Houndsfield units > spleen Lung diameter < 27 cm craniocaudal Less reliable sign of over-inflation Lymph nodes see Lymph node chart Mediastinum 8 cm On upright PA films Not a very reliable sign Ovarian follicle < 2.5 cm Greater than 2.5 cm is a cyst Ovaries (postmenopausal) < 8 cc volume Ovaries (premenopausal) 3 x 3 x 4 cm (or 18 cc volume) Pancreas 2 cm / 1 cm / 1 - 2 cm Head//Neck/Body & tail Pancreatic duct 3 mm (5 mm in elderly) Enlarges with age Parathyroid Body Imaging Normal Values Comments  Adrenal glands < 1 cm thick (both limbs), 4 - 6 cm length  Aorta 3 cm Or 2.5 cm @ the diaphragm, 2.0 cm @ the mid-abdomen, and 1.8 cm @ the bifurcation. Greater than 5 cm has increased risk of rupture.  Appendix < 6 mm  Appendix wall < 3 mm  Azygous vein 6 mm / 10 mm Upright films/supine films Bladder wall 3 mm / 5 mm Distended/non-distend bladder Blood (acute hemorrhage) 40-60 Houndsfield units Bronchi (proximal) < 2.4 cm Tracheobronchomegaly (Mournier- Kuhn disease) Bronchus intermedius posterior wall < 2 mm Carina angle < 60 degrees Sign of left atrial enlargement Cervix (in pregnancy) > 3 cm length < 3 cm length is cervical shortening Colon < 5 cm Colon cecum < 8 cm > 10 cm is at increased risk of perforation > 12 cm is toxic megacolon Colon wall < 3 mm With lumen distended Common bile duct 7 mm Cysts 10-15 Houndsfield units Duodenum see small bowel Endometrium 3-15 mm / 5 mm Pre-menopausal/post-menopausal Esophagus < 3 mm wall thickness In a distended esophagus Fallopian tubes 12 14 cm Gallbladder 5 x 10 cm Gallbladder (lumen) 4 cm Gallbladder wall 3 mm Gastric folds < 1 cm in the fundus < 5 mm in the antrum Heart size (Cardiothoracic  index) < 0.55 on PA, < 0.60 on AP AP view less reliable Ileum See small bowel Interlobar artery (right) < 16 mm in males, < 15 mm in females Measured on a PA film, immediately lateral to the portion of the bronchus intermedius. Intrahepatic ducts 2 mm IVC < 28 mm Jejunum See small bowel Kidney 9 - 13 cm or 3 - 4 lumbar vertebral bodies  Avg. length is 11 cm Large bowel (lumen) 6 cm Large bowel wall 3 mm Liver < 15 cm Liver CT attenuation 8 Houndsfield units > spleen Lung diameter < 27 cm craniocaudal Less reliable sign of over-inflation Lymph nodes see Lymph node chart Mediastinum 8 cm On upright PA films Not a very reliable sign Ovarian follicle < 2.5 cm Greater than 2.5 cm is a cyst Ovaries (postmenopausal) < 8 cc volume Ovaries (premenopausal) 3 x 3 x 4 cm (or 18 cc volume) Pancreas 2 cm / 1 cm / 1 - 2 cm Head//Neck/Body & tail Pancreatic duct 3 mm (5 mm in elderly) Enlarges with age Parathyroid Paratracheal stripe < 4 mm Never extends below the R bronchus Pericardium -Subpericardial fat stripe < 10 mm Placenta > 2 cm between placenta and internal os < 2 cm is low-lying placenta Pleura 0.2 0.4 mm normal thickness Not visible by CT Portal vein 13 mm AP Where PV crosses IVC. Portal vein diameter < 13 mm Enlarged in portal hypertension Prostate < 4 cm diameter, < 30 cc volume Pulmonary artery < 2.9 cm Pulmonary artery : Aorta diameter < 1:1 Ratio greater than 1:1 correlates with elevated mean Pyloric stenosis Pylo ric canal < 1.2 mm Pyloric muscle > 3mm Retrosternal air space < 3 cm at 3 cm below sternomanubrial  junction Less reliable sign of over-inflation  Small bowel (lumen) 2.5 - 3.0 cm Small bowel folds < 4 mm Small bowel wall 3 mm Spleen 12 x 7 x 4 cm Any splenic dimension greater than 14 cm suggests splenomegaly. Splenic vein < 10 mm Associated with portal hypertension Stomach wall 2 - 5 mm In a distended stomach Superior mesenteric vein < 10 mm Associated with portal hypertension Testicle (veins) < 2 mm in diameter Varicoceles are greater than 2 mm Testicles 5 x 3 x 3 cm Thymus < 13 mm if greater than 20 years Thyroid 2 - 5 cm per lobe Trachea < 3 cm Tracheobronchomegaly (Mournier- Kuhn disease) Coronal : sagittal diameter ratio of > 0.6, narrowing in saber sheath trachea. Tracheoesophageal stripe < 5 mm Umbilical vein 3 mm Develops as a collateral in portal HTN. Ureter < 8 mm Uterus junctional zone < 12 mm (as seen on MRI) Thickening in adenomyosis Vater s papilla (Major papilla) 8 - 10 mm in length Back to the top Musculoskeletal Normal Values Comments  Acromioclavicular distance < 8 mm  Atlantodental distance Adults < 3 mm Children < 5 mm Basion Dens distance 12 mm Boehler s angle < 20 degrees C1 lateral masses < 2 mm bilaterally Capitolunate angle < 20 degrees Coracoclavicular distance < 13 mm Foot angles AP talocalcaneal angle 20 - 40 degrees Lateral talocalcaneal angle 35 - 50 degrees Intercarpal space 2 - 4 mm Prevertebral soft tissue space C3-C4 5 mm Non-portable film Preverterbral soft tissue space C5 C7 20 mm from vertebral body Not as reliable as the C3 C4 space Prosthesis < 2 mm at bone-cement or metal-bone interfaces Increased value indicates prosthetic loosening Radius 15 - 25 degrees ulnar tilt 10 - 25 degrees volar tilt
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