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  Notations and formulas 1   5   Notations and formulas A Area of sectionAG Painting Surface per unit massAL Painting Surface per unit lengthAm Surface area of the steel section exposed to fireAnet net area of sectionAp area of the inner surface of the fire protection materialAvz shear areaa inclination of main axes of inertiab Width of sectiond Depth of straight portion of webe min ,e max   allowable edge distancesG Mass per unit lengthh Depth of sectionhi Inner depth between flangesI Second moment of areai radius of gurationIt torsion constantIw warping constantIyz centrifugal momentP min ,P max  allowable edge distancesmaximum bolt diameter r,r  1 radius of root filletr  2  toe radiusaunit mass of steels s length of stiff bearing tthickness t f flange thickness t w web thicknessudistance of extreme fibre to minor v- axisvdistance of extreme fibre to major v – axisVVolume of the steel member W el elastic section modulusW pl plastic section modulus Y  m distance of shear member  Y  s distance of center of gravity along y-axis  1   6   Conversion Table Conversion Table Length / Area / Volume 1mm0.03937in1 in (inch)25.4mm1cm0.393701in1 in (inch)2.54cm1m3.281 ft1 ft (foot)0.3048m1cm 2 0.1550in 2 1 in 2 6.452cm 2 1cm 3 10.76ft 2 1 ft 2 0.0929m 2 1cm 3 0.06102in 3 1 in 3 16.390cm 3 1m 3 35.31ft 3 1 ft 3 0.02832m 3 1cm 4 0.02403in 4 1 in 4 41.62cm 4 Force / Stress 1 N0.2248 lbf1lbf(pound-force)4.448N1 N/m0.06852 lbf/ft1lbf /ft 14.59 N /m1 N / mm 2  1 Mpa145 lbf/in 2 1 lbf /in 2  (psi)0.006895 N /mm 2 1 N / mm 2  1 Mpa0.145ksi1 ksi6.895 N /mm 2 1 N / cm 2 1.45 lbf / in 2 1 lbf / in 2 0.6895 N /cm 2 Moment 1 N m8.851 lbf – in1 lbf – in 0.113 N m1 N m0.7376 lbf - ft1 lbf – ft 1.356 N m Mass 1 kg2.205 lb1 lb (pound-mass)0.4536kg1 tonne (metric)1.102 short ton (2000 lb.)1 short ton0.9072 tonne(metric)1 tonne (metric)0.9842 long ton (2240 lb.)1 long ton1.016 tonne(metric)1 kg/m0.672 lb/ft1 lb/ft 1.4882 Temperature oC (Celsius)(oF-32)/1.8oF (Fahrenheit)(1.8oC)+32 Energy 1 J(Joule)0.737562 ft-lbf1 ft-lbf1.355818J  1  7   Material coefficients of structural steelMechanical properties of structural steel grades Material coefficients of structural steel a a  coefficient of linear thermal expansion a a  = 12.10-6 1/  o C E a  modulus of elasticity E a  = 210000 N/mm 2  = 210000 Mpa = 210KN/mm 2  = 21000 KN/cm 2  = 210000 MN/m 2   G a  Shear modulus G a = E a  2(1+v a )G a  = 81000 N/mm 2  = 81000 Mpa =8100 kN/cm 2  = 81000 MN/m 2 Va  Poisson’s ratio V a = 0.3 Pa  Unit Mass p a = 7850 kg/m 3 Mechanical properties of structural steel grades Standard GradesMinimum yieldTensile strength Minimum elongation%Notch impact test Nominal thickness(mm)Nominal Thickness(mm)Nominal thickness(mm)Temperature Min. absorbed energy EN 10025: 1993S 275 JR275 265 255 245 235 225410-560 400-54022 21 20 18+20 27S 355 J2G3/G4 355 345 335 325 315 395490-630 470-63022 21 20 18 -20 27 Rm N/mm 2 strength R eH   N/mm 2  1   8   European section rangesBritish section ranges in accordance with BS 4-1: 199t3 European section ranges Parallel flangeTaper flangeWide flange Wide flangeWide flange Parallel flange Taper flange Equal UnequalI sections I sectionsbeams channelsbearing pileschannelschannelsleg anglesleg angles 80100100100100100x100110x110120120120120120x120120x80130130x130130x65140140140140140x140150x90150150x150150x100160160160175160160x160160x80180180180180180x180200200200200200200200x200200x100220220220220220220240240240240250250x250270260260260260260280280280300300300305300300330320320320320320340340350360360360360360380380400400400400400400450450450500500500550550550600600650750700800900920100010001100 British section ranges in accordance with BS 4-1: 199t3 Universal beamsUniversal columnsWide flange bearning pilesabc d e f 152 x 89152 x 152178 x 102203 x 102203 x 133203 x 203203 x 203254 x 102254 x 146254 x 254254 x 254305 x 102305 x 165305 x 405305 x 305356 x 127356 x 171356 x 368356 x 406356 x 368406 x 140406 x 178457 x 152457 x 191533 x 210610 x 229610 x 305686 x 254762 x 267838 x 292914 x 305 914 x 419
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