Obsessive compulsive personality disorder

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A guide to recognize the symptoms of obsessive compulsive personality disorder
  1  Personality disorders Personality disorder diagnoses under the ICD-10 system each refer to a set of symptoms specific to that personality disorder and a set of diagnostic guidelines which apply to all personality disorders. A personality disorder is a severe disturbance in the characterological constitution and behavioural tendencies of the individual, usually involving several areas of the personality, and nearly always associated with considerable personal and social disruption. Personality disorder tends to appear in late childhood or adolescence and continues to be manifest into adulthood. It is therefore unlikely that the diagnosis of  personality disorder will be appropriate before the age of 16 or 17 years. General diagnostic guidelines applying to all personality disorders are presented below; supplementary descriptions are provided with each of the subtypes. Diagnostic Guidelines Conditions not directly attributable to gross brain damage or disease, or to another  psychiatric disorder, meeting the following criteria: 1.   markedly disharmonious attitudes and behaviour, involving usually several areas of functioning, e.g. affectivity, arousal, impulse control, ways of perceiving and thinking, and style of relating to others; 2.   the abnormal behaviour pattern is enduring, of long standing, and not limited to episodes of mental illness; 3.   the abnormal behaviour pattern is pervasive and clearly maladaptive to a broad range of personal and social situations; 4.   the above manifestations always appear during childhood or adolescence and continue into adulthood; 5.   the disorder leads to considerable personal distress but this may only become apparent late in its course; 6.   the disorder is usually, but not invariably, associated with significant problems in occupational and social performance. For different cultures it may be necessary to develop specific sets of criteria with regard to social norms, rules and obligations. For diagnosing most of the subtypes listed  2  below, clear evidence is usually required of the presence of at least three of the traits or  behaviours given in the clinical description. 1   What is OCPD? Obsessive compulsive personality disorder is also called anankastic personality disorder. It is mental health condition in which a person is preoccupied with rules, the need for order, and everything around them to be perfect and in their control. This disorder causes major suffering and distress, especially in the area of personal relationships. It is characterized with feelings of doubt, excessive consciousness, checking and preoccupation with details, stubbornness, caution and rigidity. Personality disorder characterized by at least 3 of the following: 1.   feelings of excessive doubt and caution; 2.    preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization or schedule; 3.    perfectionism that interferes with task completion; 4.   excessive conscientiousness, scrupulousness, and undue preoccupation with  productivity to the exclusion of pleasure and interpersonal relationships; 5.   excessive pedantry and adherence to social conventions; 6.   rigidity and stubbornness; 7.   unreasonable insistence by the patient that others submit to exactly his or her way of doing things, or unreasonable reluctance to allow others to do things; 8.   intrusion of insistent and unwelcome thoughts or impulses.  Do I have OCPD? You can recognize the person suffering from OCPD by their excessive devotion to work that impairs social and family activities, excessive fixation with lists, rules and minor details. They seek perfectionism in work, which interferes with ability to finish tasks. They 1  3 rigidly follow moral and ethical codes. There is often a tendency to hoard things and difficulty to get rid of old and unnecessary things. OCPD can easily be confused with OCD. The difference between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder is that people with OCD have insight into their condition and experience unwanted thoughts as unreasonable. However, people with OCPD think that their way is the best way and feel comfortable with self-imposed system of rules. Thoughts and behaviours of people with OCD are not related to real-life concerns; their concerns are unrelated to managing everyday situations, but have deeper, unconscious meaning. On the other side, people with OCPD are preoccupied with daily routines and rules and procedures they have to follow. OCD often interferes with person’s family and social life, as well as with work performance. That is not completely the case with people with OCPD  –   their obsessive personality structure enhances their work performance, while their family and social life suffers because of their rigidity and lack of spontaneous behaviour. People with OCD feel tormented by their involuntary thoughts and behaviours and are aware they need treatment in order to feel better and improve the quality of their life and relationships. People with OCPD do not think they require any type of help or treatment. They even think that others are the ones who need to change in order to fulfil their standards. 2  People with OCPD are preoccupied with details and rules; they cannot function if the  perfection in work is not achieved. It often leads to inability to finish work projects due to dedicating too much time making sure that every single thing is done perfectly and according to their strict standards. They like having control over other people, tasks and situations and are unable to delegate tasks with others. In most cases, they neglect friends and family being excessively committed to work or a project. 3  OCD is an illness with symptoms that change in severity over time, while OCPD reflects an overly rigid personality style that does not change much over a person's lifetime. OCPD is not associated with the obsessions and compulsions that are so prominent in OCD. Although people with OCD and OCPD might both carry out repetitive behaviours, the underlying motive is very different. While someone with OCD might repeatedly write out 2 3  4 lists or organize items around the home to keep a catastrophe from taking place, someone with OCPD would be more likely to do these activities to increase their efficiency or  productivity. While people with OCD usually want to get rid of their symptoms, it is not uncommon for people with OCPD to see nothing wrong with their behaviour and to feel that other  people are the problem. Likewise, although people with OCD will usually seek help for the distress caused by their obsession or compulsions, individuals with OCPD will usually seek treatment because of conflict between themselves and family and friends related to their need to have others conform to their way of doing things. People with OCPD often have very rigid views on right versus wrong, and this rigidity may extend to spending habits; people with OCPD are often described as miserly.  Neither of these is a defining characteristic of OCD. In comparison to those with OCD, people with OCPD tend to be more ruled by  perfectionism and have a higher need for order and control in both their personal and  professional lives. It is not uncommon for individuals with OCPD to become irritated by others who do not value order, perfectionism and exactness to the same extent that they do. Because of this perfectionism, it is not uncommon for people with OCPD to overly devote to work. 4  For example, although both OCD and OCPD may involve being excessively engaged in tasks that require exquisite attention to detail such as list-making, individuals with OCD:    use these tasks to reduce anxiety caused by obsessional thoughts. For example, if you have OCD you might make a list over and over again to prevent the death of a loved one. In contrast, if you have OCPD you might justify list-making as a good strategy to improve efficiency.    are usually distressed by having to carry out these tasks or rituals. In contrast, people with OCPD view activities such as excessive list making or organization of items around the home as necessary and even beneficial. 4
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