Overview: 1. Epidemiology of childhood cancer survivorship 2. Late effects 3. Palliative care of survivors 4. Examples

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Childhood Cancer Survivorship Jacqueline Casillas, M.D., M.S.H.S. Associate Program Director of the UCLA-LIVESTRONG LIVESTRONGTM TM Center of Excellence for Survivorship Care Overview: 1. Epidemiology
Childhood Cancer Survivorship Jacqueline Casillas, M.D., M.S.H.S. Associate Program Director of the UCLA-LIVESTRONG LIVESTRONGTM TM Center of Excellence for Survivorship Care Overview: 1. Epidemiology of childhood cancer survivorship 2. Late effects 3. Palliative care of survivors 4. Examples Pediatric Cancers: Diverse group of malignancies - aggressive and fast growing: Leukemia and lymphomas Brain tumors (e.g. medulloblastoma) Neuroblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Hepatoblastoma Improved survival due to: Advancement made through enrollment on clinical trials Aggressive treatment regimens Chemotherapy Rdi Radiation i therapy Surgery Bone marrow transplantation Bioimmunotherapies Survival rates: Nearing the 80% survival rate for children diagnosed with cancer!! Is possible because Rapidly growing cancers which respond to these multimodal treatment regimens In general, no underlying chronic health problems Often first time they have interacted with the healthcare system for other than WCC and acute infections Epidemiology of Survivorship: Over 10 million survivors in the United States Approximately 300,000 are survivors of childhood cancer 1/810 individuals 20 years of age have a h/o cancer; 1/640 adults between have a h/o cancer during childhood Cost of Cure: Late effects: : any chronic or late occurring outcome, physical or psychological, that persists or develops beyond 5 years from the diagnosis of cancer Late Effects: Include both physical and psychological late effects 2/3 of childhood cancer survivors will experience at least one late effect Typically have more than one late effect ¼ of survivors will have a severe, life- threatening late effect Late Effects: Some are easy to identify b/c of their visibility (Examples): Severe growth hormone deficiency Severe cognitive impairment Other late effects may only be identified ifi d through h screening tests (Examples): Hypothyroidism Osteopenia Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines org Developed in 2002 Hybrid of evidence-based and consensus-driven Goal: : systematic ongoing follow-up Eg frequency of LFTs, PFTs Goal: : early detection and early intervention NOT designed for disease-related surveillance which is usually highest in the first few years Paradigm shift for oncologists Late Effects Counseling - Based on therapy received: Past 2 decades - many changes in treatment protocols Localized or biologically favorable, modification in treatment protocols to decrease risk of therapy-related related complications Example ALL and prophylactic cranial XRT removed from more contemporary treatment protocols Bottom line: Not all survivors have similar risks for late effects Wilms tumor (Vinc and actino) Multiply relapsed ALL (MUD BMT with TBI) Surgical late effects: Splenectomy - risk for infection, particularly for Hodgkin's disease (HD) survivors diagnosed prior to 1988 Amputation - cosmetic and functional deformities Abdominal surgery - adhesions and risk for intestinal i obstruction Alkylating agents Chemotherapy-related related endocrine late effects: e.g. cyclophosphamide, busulfan, carmustine, lomustine, mechlorethamine, melphelan, procarbazine Females: premature ovarian failure Hot flashes Osteoporosis Sexual dysfunction Potential infertility Male survivors: azoospermia Endocrine late effects due to XRT: Central nervous system: pituitary dysfunction Typically if XRT 40 Gy GH secretion: most vulnerable Can occur at doses as low as 1800cGy Neck XRT: hypothyroidism and/or thyroid cancer Infradiaphragmatic radiation: gonadal damage Eg: ovarian damage, premature menopause, decreased estrogen production risk for decreased bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), fractures Cardiovascular late effects: Chemotherapy related: Anthracycline agents (eg doxorubicin, daunorubicin) Progressive cardiomyopathy Congestive heart failure Arrhythmia, including prolonged QTc Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction Radiation related: Valvular disease Ah Atherosclerotic heart disease Myocardial infarction Pericardial fibrosis, pericarditis Second Malignant Neoplasms: Breast cancer and chest XRT 20 Gy Colon cancer and abdominal, pelvic XRT 30 Gy Thyroid cancer and neck XRT Secondary leukemia and epipodophyllotoxins Soft tissue sarcomas associated with radiation i therapy Basal cell carcinomas associated with radiation therapy exposure Symptom Management/Palliative Care - An Integral Part of fs Survivorship Care Pain Cancer survivors report chronic pain Agreement exists for the treatment of acute pain Little consensus on the treatment of chronic pain Chronic pain treatment strategies include Medications (eg long-acting opiods) CAM (eg acupuncture) Psychological healing/coping strategies Body image changes Physical activity programs Psychosocial group based interventions t Referrals to specific psychotherapists eg - sexual therapists Case Examples: Example of late effects screening: ALL survivors (both chemo alone and cranial XRT) at- risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome Blood pressure q year, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile every 2 years if obese and every 5 years if normal weight Cranial radiotherapy Neurocognitive late effects - information-processing deficits, problems with receptive and expressive language, attention deficits SMN risk Pituitary dysfunction GH deficiency, gonadotropin deficiency, hypothyroidism Conclusions: 10 million survivor of cancer in the U. S. with 300,000 being childhood cancer survivors A childhood cancer survivor will need to be followed annually for late effects Symptom management/palliative care is an integral part of survivorship care given the risk for the development of physical, psychological and social late effects Less than 50% of childhood cancer survivors are receiving cancer-related related long-term follow-up care Thank you
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