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Parallel Structure

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Parallel Structure Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as and or or. WORDS AND PHARASES With the -ing form (gerund) of words: Parallel:Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling. With infinitive phrases: Parallel:Mary likes to hike, to swim, and t
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  Parallel Structure Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level. The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as and or or. WORDS ND PH R SES With the -ing form (gerund) of words: Parallel: Mary likes hik  ing , swimm ing , and bicycl ing . With infinitive phrases:   Parallel: Mary likes to hike , to swim , and to ride  a bicycle. OR Mary likes to hike , swim , and ride  a bicycle. (Note: You can use to before all the verbs in a sentence or only before the first one.) DO NOT MIX FORMS Example 1   Not Parallel:  Mary likes hik  ing , swimm ing , and to ride  a bicycle. Parallel:  Mary likes hik  ing , swimm ing , and rid ing  a bicycle. Example 2   Not Parallel:  The production manager was asked to write his report quick  ly , accurate ly , and in a detailed manner . Parallel:  The production manager was asked to write his report quick  ly , accurate ly , and thorough ly . Example 3   Not Parallel:  The teacher said that he was a poor student because he wait ed  until the last minute to study for the exam, complet ed  his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was  low. Parallel:  The teacher said that he was a poor student because he wait ed  until the last minute to study for the exam, complet ed  his lab problems in a careless manner, and lack  ed  motivation. Clauses  A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses. Changing to another pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from  active to passive or vice versa) will break the parallelism. Example 1   Not Parallel:  The coach told the players that they should get  a lot of sleep, that they should not eat  too much, and to do  some warm-up exercises before the game. Parallel:  The coach told the players that they should get  a lot of sleep, that they should not eat  too much, and that they should do  some warm-up exercises before the game.  —   or  —    Parallel:  The coach told the players that they should get  a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do  some warm-up exercises before the game. Example 2   Not Parallel:  The salesman expected that he would present  his product at the meeting, that there would be  time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked  by prospective buyers. (passive)   Parallel:  The salesman expected that he would present  his product at the meeting, that there would be  time for him to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would ask   him questions.   LIST FTER COLON   Be sure to keep all the elements in a list in the same form.   Example 1   Not Parallel:  The dictionary can be used to find these: word meanings , pronunciations , correct spellings , and looking up irregular verbs . Parallel:  The dictionary can be used to find these: word meanings , pronunciations , correct spellings , and irregular verbs .  Proofreading Strategies to Try:    Skim your paper, pausing at the words and and or. Check on each side of these words to see whether the items joined are parallel. If not, make them parallel.     If you have several items in a list, put them in a column to see if they are parallel.    Listen to the sound of the items in a list or the items being compared. Do you hear the same, kinds of sounds? For example, is there a series of -ing words beginning each item? Or do your hear a rhythm being repeated? If something is breaking that rhythm or repetition of sound check to see if it needs to be made parallel. SIMILE 1.   dream of silent verses where the rhyme glides noiseless as an oar. 2.   Though they knew it not, their baby‟s cries were lovely as  jeweled butterflies. 3.   He kissed her as though he were trying to win a sword fight. 4.   The paparazzi circled like vultures above a tottering camel. 5.   She was as distant as a remote tropical island, uncivilized, unspoiled. 6.   Our hearts, though stout and brave, still, like muffled drums, are beating funeral marches to the grave. 7.   He had hidden his wealth, heaped and hoarded and piled on high like sacks of wheat in a granary. 8.   Pieces of silver and of gold / Into the tinkling strong-box fell  / Like pebbles dropped into a well; 9.   The cabin windows have grown blank as eyeballs of the dead. 10.   What passing-bells for these who die as cattle? 11.   Each face was like the setting sun, / As, broad and red. 12.   Barefooted, ragged, with neglected hair, she was a thin slip of a girl, like a new moon. 13.   A fatal letter wings its way across the sea, like a bird of prey. 14.   I will sing a slumberous refrain, and you shall murmur like a child appeased.  15.   For she knows me! My heart, clear as a crystal beam / To her alone, ceases to be inscrutable. 16.   Leaf-strewing gales utter low wails like violins, 17.   He spit out his teeth like stones. 18.   Talk of your cold: through the parka‟s fold it stabbed like a driven nail. 19.   Dawn breaks open like a wound that bleeds afresh. 20.   Like winged stars the fire-flies flash and glance, / Pale in the open moonshine. 21.   The breath of her false mouth was like faint flowers, / Her touch was as electric poison. 22.   Then, as a hunted deer that could not flee, I turned upon my thoughts and stood at bay, wounded and weak and panting; 23.   There are thick woods where many a fountain, rivulet, and pond are as clear as elemental diamond. 24.   Years heap their withered hours, like leaves, on our decay. 25.   The ripples wimple on the rills, like sparkling little lasses. 26.   She was like a modest flower blown in sunny June and warm as sun at noon‟s high hour.  27.   And the face of the waters that spread away / Was as gray as the face of the dead. 28.   As in depths of many seas, my heart was drowned in memories. 29.   Then like a cold wave on a shore, comes silence and she sings no more. 30.   And shout thy loud battle-cry, cleaving the silence like a sword. 31.   My soul is lost and tossed like a ship unruddered in a shoreless sea. 32.   The clouds like crowds of snowy-hued and white-robed maidens pass 33.   Dreams, like ghosts, must hide away; / „Tis the day.  34.   The evening stretches before me like a road. 35.   I would have hours that move like a glitter of dancers. 36.   Toby manipulated the people in his life as though they were chess pieces. 37.   And only to think that my soul could not react, but turned on itself like a tortured snake.

GR00002600-23A.pdf

Jul 23, 2017

Nucleus

Jul 23, 2017
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