Documents

Pmt Handbook Complete

Categories
Published
of 324
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Description
notiuni fundamentale despre fotomultiplicatori
Transcript
  PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES PHOTON IS OUR BUSINESS Basics and Applications   THIRD EDITION  ▲ Photomultiplier Tubes ▲ Photomultiplier Tube Modules  Introduction Light detection technolgy is a powerful tool that provides deeper understanding of more sophisticatedphenomena. Measurement using light offers unique advantages: for example, nondestructive analysis of asubstance, high-speed properties and extremely high detectability. Recently, in particular, such advanced fieldsas scientific measurement, medical diagnosis and treatment, high energy physics, spectroscopy and biotech-nology require development of photodetectors that exhibit the ultimate in various performance parameters.Photodetectors or light sensors can be broadly divided by their operating principle into three major catego-ries: external photoelectric effect, internal photoelectric effect and thermal types. The external photoelectriceffect is a phenomenon in which when light strikes a metal or semiconductor placed in a vacuum, electronsare emitted from its surface into the vacuum. Photomultiplier tubes (often abbreviated as PMT) make use of this external photoelectric effect and are superior in response speed and sensitivity (low-light-level detection).They are widely used in medical equipment, analytical instruments and industrial measurement systems.Light sensors utilizing the internal photoelectric effect are further divided into photoconductive types andphotovoltaic types. Photoconductive cells represent the former, and PIN photodiodes the latter. Both typesfeature high sensitivity and miniature size, making them well suited for use as sensors in camera exposuremeters, optical disk pickups and in optical communications. The thermal types, though their sensitivity is low,have no wavelength-dependence and are therefore used as temperature sensors in fire alarms, intrusion alarms,etc.This handbook has been structured as a technical handbook for photomultiplier tubes in order to providethe reader with comprehensive information on photomultiplier tubes.This handbook will help the user gain maximum performance from photomultiplier tubes and show how toproperly operate them with higher reliability and stability. In particular, we believe that the first-time user willfind this handbook beneficial as a guide to photomultiplier tubes. We also hope this handbook will be usefulfor engineers already experienced in photomultiplier tubes for upgrading performance characteristics.Information furnished by Hamamatsu Photonics is believed to be reliable. However, no responsibility isassumed for possible inaccuracies or omission. The contents of this manual are subject to change withoutnotice. No patent rights are granted to any of the circuits described herein.©2006 Hamamatsu Photonics K. K.  CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................1 1.1 Overview of This Manual.....................................................................21.2 Photometric Units................................................................................41.2.1 Spectral regions and units......................................................41.2.2 Units of light intensity .............................................................51.3 History ...............................................................................................101.3.1 History of photocathodes......................................................101.3.2 History of photomultiplier tubes ............................................10References in Chapter 1...............................................................................12 CHAPTER 2 BASIC PRINCIPLES OFPHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES ......................................13 2.1 Photoelectron Emission ....................................................................142.2 Electron Trajectory ............................................................................162.3 Electron Multiplier (Dynode Section).................................................172.4 Anode................................................................................................18References in Chapter 2...............................................................................19 CHAPTER 3 BASIC OPERATING METHODSOF PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES ................................21 3.1 Using Photomultiplier Tubes .............................................................223.1.1 How to make the proper selection........................................223.1.2 Peripheral devices................................................................23 High-voltage power supply......................................................................... 23Voltage-divider circuit................................................................................. 24Housing...................................................................................................... 26Integral power supply module .................................................................... 27 3.1.3 Operating methods (connection circuits)..............................28
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks