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Podcasting Legal Guide[1]

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1. PODCASTING LEGAL GUIDE: RULES FOR THE REVOLUTION Colette Vogele, Esq. Mia Garlick Vogele & Associates Creative Commons Stanford Center for Internet and Society…
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  • 1. PODCASTING LEGAL GUIDE: RULES FOR THE REVOLUTION Colette Vogele, Esq. Mia Garlick Vogele & Associates Creative Commons Stanford Center for Internet and Society Stanford Center for Internet and Society The Berkman Center Clinical Program in Cyberlaw Harvard Law School 1
  • 2. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 You are free: • to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work • to make derivative works Under the following conditions: Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor. Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder Your fair use and other rights are in no way affected by the above. This is a human-readable summary of the Legal Code (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/legalcode) Disclaimer (available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/disclaimer-popup?lang=en)
  • 3. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................................................................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................................................. iii FOREWORD (By Lawrence Lessig)................................................................................................................ v INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................... vii 1. Legal Issues In Creating Your Own Podcast .................................................................................. 1 1.1. Overview Of The Legal Issues You Need To Consider ....................................................... 1 1.1.1. Why Is Copyright Law Relevant? .............................................................................. 1 1.1.2. Why Are Publicity Rights Relevant?.......................................................................... 2 1.1.3. How Is Trademark Law Relevant? ............................................................................ 2 1.1.4. What Other Issues Should I Be Thinking About?..................................................... 2 1.2. Copyright Issues....................................................................................................................... 2 1.2.1. Using Written Content Created By Someone Else: Permission Is Generally Required. ................................................................................................... 2 1.2.2. The Good News: 5 Instances Where Permission Is Not Required ......................... 3 1.2.2.1. You Are Using A Fact, An Idea, A Theory Or Slogan, Title Or Short Phrase......................................................................................... 3 1.2.2.2. You Are Using Works That Are In The Public Domain ........................... 4 1.2.2.3. You Are Using A US Government Work .................................................. 6 1.2.2.4. You Are Making A “Fair Use”.................................................................... 7 1.2.2.5. You Are Using Creative Commons-Licensed Or “Podsafe” Content....................................................................................................... 7 1.2.3. Special Rules For Librarians Or Teachers.............................................................. 10 1.2.4. Using Your Own Written Content ............................................................................ 10 1.2.5. Incorporating Pre-Existing Audio Voice Recordings .............................................. 11 1.2.6. Interviewing Someone Or Asking Someone To Join You In Conversation As Part Of Your Podcast................................................................... 11 1.2.7. Using Music............................................................................................................... 12 1.2.7.1. Two Types Of Works Involved In A Copyrighted Song ........................ 12 1.2.7.2. Two Types Of Copyright “Rights”. .......................................................... 14 1.2.7.3. Licenses You Will Need .......................................................................... 16 1.2.7.4. The “Fair Use” Exception ........................................................................ 19 1.2.8. Using Video/Images. ................................................................................................ 19 1.2.9. Fair Use Under Copyright Law And Its Application To Podcasts.......................... 20 --i-- Discussion in this Guide represents the authors’ understanding of the law in the U.S. at it presently exists. It does not necessarily represent what the authors believe the law should be on these subjects. This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice.
  • 4. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 1.2.9.1. Two Misconceptions About Fair Use .................................................... 20 1.2.9.2. Examples Of Fair Use That May Apply In Podcasting.......................... 21 1.3. Publicity Rights Issues ........................................................................................................... 21 1.4. Trademark Issues................................................................................................................... 22 1.4.1. Infringement And Dilution......................................................................................... 22 1.4.2. When Do I Need Permission? ................................................................................. 23 1.4.3. A Note About Using Trademark Disclaimers .......................................................... 23 1.5. Finding “Podsafe” Content To Include In Your Podcasts .................................................... 24 1.5.1. Finding CC-Licensed Materials ............................................................................... 24 1.5.2. Other Sites That Offer Podsafe Content ................................................................. 25 2. Legal Issues Surrounding How You Distribute Your Podcast .................................................. 25 2.1. Implied Licenses..................................................................................................................... 25 2.2. Express Licenses ................................................................................................................... 26 2.2.1. Applying A CC License To Your Podcast ............................................................... 26 2.2.2. Using the “All Rights Reserved” Model For Your Podcast .................................... 27 2.3. Using A Service To Distribute And/Or Promote Your Podcasts ......................................... 27 3. Basic Background Of Podcasting .................................................................................................. 27 3.1. A (Very, Very) Brief History ................................................................................................... 27 3.2. What Is Podcasting? What Are Podcasts?........................................................................... 28 3.3. How Does It Work? ................................................................................................................ 28 3.4. What Is RSS? How Does It Work With Podcasts? .............................................................. 28 4. Background And Further Resources. ............................................................................................ 29 4.1. General Information ............................................................................................................... 29 4.2. How To Make A Podcast ....................................................................................................... 29 4.3. Open-Source Podcast Players .............................................................................................. 29 4.4. Search Engines And Directories For Podcasts.................................................................... 30 4.5. Podcatcher Programs ............................................................................................................ 30 4.6. Finding Podsafe Content ....................................................................................................... 30 4.7. Websites With Legal Information On The Issues In This Guide ......................................... 30 4.8. Public Domain ........................................................................................................................ 30 4.9. IP Law (Copyright, Trademark, Publicity Rights, Etc.) ........................................................ 30 4.10. Books About Podcasting........................................................................................................ 31 4.11. Other Resources About Copyright Law ................................................................................ 31 4.12. Other Resources About Trademark Law .............................................................................. 31 4.13. Other Resources About Digital Rights, Copyright, Free Expression .................................. 31 --ii-- Discussion in this Guide represents the authors’ understanding of the law in the U.S. at it presently exists. It does not necessarily represent what the authors believe the law should be on these subjects. This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice
  • 5. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Writing this Guide was made possible through the assistance, support and feedback of many. Stanford Law School’s Center for Internet & Society provided a forum for discussion and support of this project. Lawrence Lessig, the program’s founder, and Jennifer Stisa Granick, the Executive Director, have created an atmosphere that has fostered my growth as a lawyer and my ability to take on a project like this. I am extremely grateful for the support of my co-author, Mia Garlick, who was instrumental in drafting portions of the Guide, acting as a liaison with Harvard’s Berkman Center, and being a supportive colleague on many fronts. The Berkman Center provided much of the research and writing on the music section, which was a tremendous help. I am also thankful for Lauren Gelman, who among other things, spearheads the speaker series at Stanford where I presented my initial work on the Guide in November 2005, and who provided feedback on early drafts of the material contained in the Guide. A number of other people (podcasters, lawyers, and some who are both) have helped with feedback on the early drafts including Elizabeth Townsend Gard (http://academiccopyright.typepad.com/), Joe Gratz (http://www.joegratz.net/), Denise Howell (http://bgbg.blogspot.com/), Chris MacDonald (http://www.indiefeed.com), and Matthew May (http://www.staccatomusic.org/), Martin Schwimmer (http://www.schwimmerlegal.com/), and Matthew Wayne Selznick (http://www.mwsmedia.com/). The Guide is certainly a better product as a result of their feedback and comments. Finally, I am very thankful for Creative Commons’ assistance in hosting the web-version of the Guide, and in particular I am thankful for Mike Linksvayer and Alex Roberts who created the cool logo and took care of all the technical details of getting the Guide on line, and putting the wiki together. Colette Vogele San Francisco, California March 2006 --iii-- Discussion in this Guide represents the authors’ understanding of the law in the U.S. at it presently exists. It does not necessarily represent what the authors believe the law should be on these subjects. This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice
  • 6. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 --iv-- Discussion in this Guide represents the authors’ understanding of the law in the U.S. at it presently exists. It does not necessarily represent what the authors believe the law should be on these subjects. This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice
  • 7. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 FOREWORD By Lawrence Lessig Federal law regulates creativity. That regulation is insanely complex. Indeed, the law is more complex today than at any point in our history. It seems the more the lawyers work on the law, the less useable the law becomes. For the first time in our history, this complex regulation of creativity effectively regulates consumers, or users, as well as the businesses that support creativity. For the first time, its regulation reaches far beyond commercial creativity, and instead burdens noncommercial, or amateur creativity (where “amateur” means not second rate, or inferior creativity, but instead creativity done for the love of creating and not for the money). And that regulation now threatens one of the most important new venues for citizen speech — podcasting. This Guide is an excellent resource for anyone who wants to figure out how best to follow the law. It is also an outstanding recommendation for the non-profit I run, Creative Commons, for as you will see as you work through the insanity that copyright law has become, Creative Commons is a simple alternative to this complex mess. But my hope for this Guide (which in addition to copyright addresses publicity rights and trademark law) is that it will begin to make obvious what digital creators have been saying for some time — that it is time we update copyright law to the digital age. Something fantastic has changed: technology now invites the widest range of citizens to become speakers and creators. It is time that the law remove the unnecessary burdens that it imposes on this creativity. “Copyright law” is essential in a digital age. But it ought to be a copyright law made for a digital age. Ours is not. And this fantastic Guide for those wanting to obey the rules should be evidence enough to convince anyone of that fact. --v-- Discussion in this Guide represents the authors’ understanding of the law in the U.S. at it presently exists. It does not necessarily represent what the authors believe the law should be on these subjects. This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice
  • 8. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 --vi-- Discussion in this Guide represents the authors’ understanding of the law in the U.S. at it presently exists. It does not necessarily represent what the authors believe the law should be on these subjects. This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice
  • 9. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 INTRODUCTION Welcome to the Podcasting Legal Guide. If you have suggestions, comments or questions about the Guide, please post your comments on the talk page of our wiki (located at http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Podcasting_Legal_Guide). These comments will be reviewed periodically and will help us when preparing future updates to the Guide. Purpose The purpose of this Guide is to provide you with a general roadmap of some of the legal issues specific to podcasting. EFF has produced a very practical and helpful guide for issues related to blogging generally (http://www.eff.org/bloggers/). This Guide is not intended to duplicate efforts by EFF, and in many cases refers you to that guide for where crossover issues are addressed. Our goal is to complement EFF’s Bloggers FAQ and address some of the standalone issues that are of primary relevance to podcasters, as opposed to bloggers. US-Law Only This Guide covers only US-based legal questions. Since podcasts are typically distributed world wide, legal issues from other jurisdictions are relevant for you but we are unable to include them at this time. We have released this Guide under a Creative Commons license that permits derivatives works and so we hope that practitioners in other jurisdictions will translate and adapt this Guide for their jurisdictions. Please let us know if you do by emailing podcasting@vogelelaw.com so that we can link to your version of the Guide. This Guide Does Not Provide Legal Advice This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice. Using this Guide does not create an attorney-client relationship. This general legal information is provided on an quot;as-isquot; basis. The authors and contributors make no warranties regarding the general legal information provided in this Guide, and disclaim liability for damages resulting from its use to the fullest extent permitted by the applicable law. Please also note that this Guide attempts to provide an overview of how the law is likely to treat many of the issues that arise in relation to podcasting. At all times, you should bear in mind that this Guide does not advocate for how the law should treat podcasting, only what the law is likely to be currently. License & Attribution The text of this Guide is licensed to you under the Creative Common’s Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike 2.5 License. Please attribute this Guide as follows: “Podcasting Legal Guide (http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Podcasting_Legal_Guide) © 2006 Colette Vogele of Vogele & Associates, Mia Garlick of Creative Commons and the Berkman Center Clinical Program in Cyberlaw. This Guide was produced as part of the Non-Residential Fellowship Program of the Center for Internet & Society at Stanford Law School.” Organization The next section, Section 1 — “Legal Issues In Creating Your Own Podcast” — of this Guide jumps right into some of the legal questions that you may need to think about when incorporating different types of material into your podcast. Section 2 — “Legal Issues Surrounding How You Distribute Your Podcast” — discusses options for how you can deal with the output of your own podcast, e.g., your licensing options for when you distribute your work. For those of you who need a little background on how podcasting works from a technical standpoint, Section 3 — “Basic Background to Podcasting” — gives you some very basic technical background. (If you've stumbled on this Guide but have never heard of podcasting, then you definitely want to start at Section 3.) Finally, Section 4 — “Background & Further Resources” — provides you with a list of further resources. --vii-- Discussion in this Guide represents the authors’ understanding of the law in the U.S. at it presently exists. It does not necessarily represent what the authors believe the law should be on these subjects. This Guide provides general information about legal topics but it is not a complete discussion of all legal issues that arise in relation to podcasting nor is it a substitute for legal advice
  • 10. Podcasting Legal Guide, v 1.0 1. Legal Issues In Creatin
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