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Poetic Forms and Genres Ballad (“folk” or “popular”): a short story-song that focuses on a signifcant episode (e.g., love or adventure). Characteristic ballad eter uses !uatrains in hich the frst and third lines are iabic tetraeter and do not rhye, and the second and fourth are iabic trieter and do rhye (abcb)# : straightfor ard# easy to understand# fre!uently tragic and plaintive setting, character, events ith a clia$# beginning, iddle, end character otivation and possibly character de
  Poetic Forms andGenres Ballad  (“folk” or “popular”): a short story-song that focuses on a signicant episode (e.g., love or adventure). Characteristic ballad eter uses !uatrains in hich the rst and third lines are iabic tetraeter and do not rhye, and the second and fourth are iabic trieter and do rhye (abcb)# : straightfor ard# easy to understand# fre!uently tragic and plaintive setting, character, events ith a clia$# beginning, iddle, end character otivation and possibly character developent# typically has underlying thee. Ballade : %rench in srcin and ade up of &' lines, usually three stanas of eight lines and a concluding stana, called envoy, of four lines. he last line of each stana is the sae, the schee is ababbcbc, and the envoy is bcbc. Blank Verse : unrhyed iabic pentaeter. Concrete Poems : poes in hich the ords draatie their eaning ith appearance,dra attention to their physical appearance on the page. *escendant of shaped poems , hich reseble hat they discuss. Couplet : t o rhyed lines. +ay be closed/endstopped  (thought or iage is packaged and copleted in t o lines) or open/enjambed  (second line of the couplet runs into the ne$t line). Heroic Couplets  are t o lines of rhying iabic pentaeter. Elegy   (fr. reek “elegia” for song of ourning): lyric poe ritten to coeorate soeone ho is dead. o given for, though soething called an “elegiac stana” does e$ist (four lines of iabic pentaenter, abab)ho ever, a poe is called an elegy because of content, not for. Classical elegies follo a pattern: identication of sub/ect,laentation, and consolation0acceptance of loss. Epigram : 1ointed, itty poe of no prescribed for e$cept brevity. Epic (fr. reek “epos” for speech, story, song): long narrative story that celebrates herofocuses on virtues, acts as inspiration for noble action, preserves history. ypically divided into cantos or books and begins in edias res. 2ften ritten in dactylic he$aeter.  Epithalamium : poe that celebrates a arriage. o $ed for but does follo pattern of content: sub/ect is specic arriage, edding day is described, bride and groo are praised, blessings and good ishes for future happiness are e$pressed. Free Verse : no identiable eter, ay have rhying and rhythical pattern. Haiku : ypically captures essence of a oent in hich nature is linked to huan nature. 3sually about nature or people4s relationship to nature# uses etaphor to look at an ordinary event in a ne , iaginative ay. %ocuses on everyday e$periences, appeals to the senses, avoids cople$ ords0graar, uses fragents, doesn4t often use etaphor or siile. +any variationsthe ost coon for is three short lines: rst and third are about sae length, the iddle one is a bit longer, and there is no rhye. (ote: there is a isconception that haiku ust follo a strict syllabic structureof seventeen syllables arranged 50605, but traditional 7apanese haiku poets count sounds, not syllables. 8t is actually closer, in 9nglish, to t elve or fteen syllables. Limerick  : si$-line huorous poe# rst, second, and fth lines rhying# and the third and fourth rhying ;;<<;=. Lyric (fr. reek “lyre”): poe of eotional intensity, describes a feeling# intellectual or eotional response to a sub/ect# usually focuses on one e$perience# usually brief# depend heavily on usical and rhythical !ualities. Narratie : tells a story (priary types are epic and ballad). !de : poe of indenite length, divided in ten-line stanas, rhyed, ith di>erent schees for each stana, ritten in iabic eter. Parody  : huorous iitation of a serious poe. uatrain : four-line stana ith various eters and rhye schees. #estina : coplicated verse for that consists of si$ stanas of si$-lines each and a three-line concluding stana called an envoy. he sestina uses the sae si$ words  to conclude lines and follo s a strict pattern hich culinates in the envoy that includes all si$ recurrent ords. (?ere, letters stand for ords, not rhyes: abcdef, faebdc, cfdabe, ecbfad, deacfb, bdfeca and eca or ace plus  bdf). #onnet (“little song”): fourteen-line poe in iabic pentaeter. he $talian or Petrarchan  has t o stanas: an octave (eight lines) abba abba and a sestet (si$ lines) cdecde or cdcdcd or siilar construction. he #penserian  sonnet, developed by 9dund @penser, has three !uatrains and a heroic couplet, abab bcbc cdcd ee. he English sonnet , developed by @hakespeare, has three !uatrains and a heroic couplet, abab cdcd efef gg. %ercet : three-line stana (called a triplet   hen all three lines rhye). %er&a 'ima : interlocking three-line rhye schee aba, bcb, etc.  Villanelle : $ed for consisting of nineteen lines divided into si$ stanas: ve tercets and a concluding !uatrain. 9ploys only t o rhyesaba, aba, aba, aba, aba, abaa.  Aepeats lines as follo s: line one is also si$, t elve, eighteen# line three is also nine, fteen, nineteen# and the rst and third lines are repeated as rhyed couplets at end.@ources: The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics  (ed. ;le$ 1reinger, e  Bork: 1rinceton 31, DE5), and The Teacher and Writers Handbook of Poetic Forms  (ed. Aon 1adgett, e Bork: eachers and Friters Collaborative, D'6.).
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