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Psych Reviewer 9, 12 13

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Psychology Reviewer my friend made for one our Psych books. This is for Chapters 9, 12, and 13!
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  Chapter 9 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 9.1 Motivation- Process by which activities are started, directed and continued so needs and wants could be met Extrinsic Motivation  –   Leads to an outcome separated from the person Intrinsic Motivation  –   Action is  performed because the action is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manners INSTINCT APPROACHES (For ppl and animals) Instinct  –   Innate patterns of behavior that exist in animals and ppl Instinct Approach  –   assumes people are governed by instincts similar to animals DRIVE REDUCTION APPROACHES  Need  –   requirement that is essential fro survival Drive- the tension which arises when theres a need, which motivates the organism to fulfill the need Drive Reduction Theory- Behavior arises from physiological needs which cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. Primary Drives- Involve survival needs Acquired Drives- Learned through experiences or conditioning. Homeostasis - Tendency of the body to maintain a constant state. 9.3 AROUSAL APPROACHES Stimulus Motive -a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity Arousal Theory-a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity Yerkes Dosdon Law- law stating  performance is related to arousal; moderate levels or arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high. This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: Easy tasks require a high-moderate level whereas more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level Sensation Seeking - Someone who needs more arousal than the average person INCENTIVE APPROACHES Incentive -things that attract or lure people into action Incentive Approaches - theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties Expectancy Value Theories- incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding the beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment in time 9.4 HUMANISTIC APPROACHES   Maslows Heirarchy of Needs Self Actualization -according to Maslow, the  point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential Peak Experiences- according to Maslow, times in a person's life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved SDT- theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effort on the type of motivation existing for the action 9.5 Insulin- a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream Glucagon- hormones that are secreted by the  pancreas to control the levels of fats,  proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the  bloodstream Weight Set point- the particular level of weight the body tries to maintain Basal Metabolic Rate- the rate at which the  body burns energy when the organism is resting 9.6 Leptin- a hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full 9.7 Emotion- the feeling aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain  physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings THREE ELEMENTS OF EMOTION Physiology of Emotion- Created by the sympathetic Nervous system Behavior of Emotion: Emotional Expressions Display Rules- learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings vary fro culture to culture. ANGER FEAR DISGUST HAPPINESS SURPRISE SADNESS Subjective Experience: Labeling Emotions- Interpreting the subjective feeling by labeling it. “Kilig, etc.”  9.8 James- Lange Theory of Emotion - theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the  labeling of an emotion “Im afraid because im Shaking”  Cannon Bard Theory of Emotion- theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time “Im  shaking and feeling afraid at the same time”  9.9 Schacher-Singer and cognitive arousal theory of emotion Cognitive Arousal Theory- theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur  before the emotion is experienced “That dog is dangerous, it makes me feel afraid” “may creepy sa harap ko, dapat matakot ako”  Facial Feedback Hypothesis- Facial expressions that lead to emotion Lazarus and the Cognitive Meditational Theory Cognitive Meditational Theory- theory of emotion in which a stimulus must  be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction “May something diyan, nakakatakot, tatakbo ako”   CHAPTER 12 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 12.1 Social Psychology- the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings and  behavior are influenced by the real, imagined or implied presence of others Social Influence-the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual. Conformity- changing one's own behavior to match that of other people Groupthink- kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned. 12.2 Compliance- changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change Consumer Psychology- branch of  psychology that studies the habits of  people in the marketplace Foot-in-the-door Technique- asking for a small commitment and after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment Door-in-the-Face Technique- asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment  Norm of Reciprocity- assumption that if someone does something for a  person, that person should do something for the other in return Lowball Technique- getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment That’s not all technique - a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look  better before the target person can make a decision 12.3 Obedience- changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure Group Behavior  Group Polarization- the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not  participated in a group discussion. Social Facilitation- the tendency for the  presence of other people to have a  positive impact on the performance of an easy task Social Impairment- the tendency for the  presence of other people to have a negative impact on the performance of a difficult task. Social Loafing- the tendency for people to  put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task 12.4 Attitude- a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation ABC’s of Attitude  Affective- Feeling Behavior- Action Cognitive- Thoughts Attitude Formation Direct Contact- kumain ako ng ampalaya, ayoko siya, kaya ayoko na ng gulay ever. Direct Instruction- Based on sa sabisabi, sabi ni mommy bawal to edi di ko gagawin to. Interaction with Others- Peer Pressure Vicarious Conditioning- Based don observation of people towards something, kunwari nakuryente si person somewhere nakita mo, so di ka na pupunta dun para di ka makuryente. Attitude Change Persuasion- the process by which one person tries to change the belief opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument,  pleading, or explanation. Source- Communicator, the message delivery person. Message- Actual message should be clear and organized. Target Audience- Characteristics of the people who are targeted to be persuaded. Elaboration Likelihood Model- model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it, and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than those who do not. Central Route Processing- type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself. Peripheral- Route Processing- type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, the length of the message, and other non content factors 12.5 Cognitive Dissonance- sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a  person's behavior does not correspond to that person's attitudes. 12.6 Impression Formation- the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person Social Cognition- the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them.
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