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Regulations
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  Regulations Standards of taste and decency Sections 3(4)(h) and 319(2)(a) and (f) of the Communications Act 2003, Article 27 of the Audiovisual Media Services and Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights all cover the regulations of broadcasting to ensure that under 18s are protected from what they may come across on TV. The regulations state that: 1.   Children (people under the age of fifteen) must be protected by the use of appropriate scheduling. This means that channels must schedule programmes judged on their content, likely number of children in the audience taking into account school holidays and weekends and the start and finish time of the programme itself. 2.   Material that could impact the development of people under the age on eighteen should not be broadcast. (footage that is inappropriate for their age or too visual) 3.   Broadcasters must take into account the watershed regulation, which means that programmes unsuitable for children should be shown after 9:00pm and before 5:30am, when children will most likely be in bed and will not come across the footage that their parents are watching. 4.   The feature of drugs, smoking, solvents and alcohol should not be used in programmes that are primarily created for children unless there is a strong justification (educational etc.) and should not be encouraged or glamorised in any way. 5.   Violence and dangerous behaviour should also not be featured in programmes created for children and should not be broadcast before the watershed unless there is justification. 6.   The most offensive language must not be used in programmes for younger children and should not be broadcast before the watershed. 7.   Sexual material that is equivalent to the British Board of Film Classification rating eighteen should not be broadcast at any time. Rating 18 material includes anything that is too graphic or explicit. 8.   Any content that contains images/language of a strong sexual nature should not be shown at any time other than between 10:00pm and 5:30am. This also includes representations of sexual intercourse which should not be shown before the watershed, unless there is a serious educational purpose. 9.   Nudity should not be shown before the watershed unless it has been justified (educational etc). 10.   No programme that has been refused classification should be broadcasted as it could have been rejected according to the standards. 11.   The programme must also include information that will assist adults when assessing the suitability of the programme for their children. (Product placement, content etc.)  12.   Demonstrations of exorcism and the paranormal must not be shown before the watershed and should not be broadcast when it is believed that there is a large number of children watching 13.   If participants under eighteens are to be shown then care must be taken over the physical and emotional welfare and dignity of the people who are involved, and they should not be subject to unnecessary stress or anxiety due to their involvement. The actors must always consent to what they are doing, and irrespective of their consent should still be respected. Commercial references in programmes are also controlled by regulations set by Ofcom. These regulations are made up by a number of rules: 1.   Broadcasters must maintain independent editorial control over their programming, and not let commercial sponsorships take hold. 2.   Broadcasters must also ensure that editorial content can be identified and not be too similar to their advertising. 3.   ‘Surreptitious advertising’ is where the broadcaster intends to advertise but this is not mad e clear to the audience, and this is not prohibited. 4.   Programmes like the BBC are not allowed to accept types of commercial revenue as they are funded primarily from a TV licence. 5.   Product placement should not be included in programmes that are made for children, or on the news. 6.   Product placement must not influence the content or scheduling if it affects the independence of the broadcaster. 7.   Cigarettes or other tobacco products and prescription-only medicines are prohibited from using product placement. 8.   Sponsorship of a programme must following the scheduling rules that apply to TV advertising. The regulations also state that the content involved should be subject to certain rules to ensure soaps are not discriminating religion or glamorising crime. It is stated that: 1.   Broadcasters must portray religion is a respectful way, and not abuse the thoughts and beliefs of a certain religion. 2.   Broadcasters should not include any content that may be seen as encouraging crime. They must not demonstrate crime in such a way that criminal techniques are presented. 3.   Broadcasters must not include any promise of payment storyline involving convicted criminals in its programmes. 4.   Broadcasters should not produce material that could be seen to endanger lives (material that contains criminal technique etc). The watershed is enforced by the government, and divides the day and night period where family broadcasting changes. Watershed times can vary, but in the UK it is 9:00pm. This is when programmes featuring adult content are aired because it is advised that children should not be watching TV after 9:00pm, so it is broadcast these programmes as children will not be affected. If these regulations are broken, then Ofcom will carry out investigations into the programmes that they have received complaints about. The investigation will involve them assessing whether the  programme is in breach, resolved or not in breach of their licencing regulations. The broadcasters’ compliance records will contain any breaches of regulations, and if they continue to break them then Ofcom can legally impose sanctions on them, which can include anything from a fine to the removal of the channels license. Hypodermic Needle The hypodermic needle theory describes that mass media has a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its consumers. It is believed that media can influence behaviour changes as the producer has the power to present a certain message to the audience. The media can influence the audience by ‘shooting’ the audience with information to trigge r a desired response. The regulations protect the public from being made subjective to certain information that could convey a negative message to the audience, such as the use of drugs or crime. In my production, I must ensure that anything illegal cannot easily be copied or glamorized as this could send out the wrong message to the public. We must also ensure that no religion or race is portrayed negatively in such a way as it alters the public’s perception of them as whole. I must also make sure that children are respected in such a way that the public still respect them. Uses & Gratification This theory concentrates on why audience watch certain programmes. It is believed that people watch soap trailers for a number of reasons including:    Fulfilling individual needs (entertainment, being alone etc)    Social interaction    Escapism    Critical game involving recognisable conventions    Domestic routine    Entertaining reward    Focus of debate or topics http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/short/usegrat.html In my production, I must make sure that the correct audience is viewing my soap trailer for the right reasons. For example, I must broadcast my soap at the correct time (either before or after the watershed) to make sure that children are not be exposed to adult themes that may not be deemed appropriate. I must make sure that illegal acts are not easily copied or interpreted by the audience to ensure people are not watching my trailer just to get ideas of how to carry out crimes for themselves. The uses and gratifications theory claims that the audience may watch a programme for a ‘focus of debate or topics’ but the topics and debate that may be included in my soap trailer must be appropriate for children if it is broadcast before the water. Reception The reception theory by Stuart Hall assesses how the audience interpret a media text. It is believed that the audience are not just passive, but interpret media texts based on their cultural background and life experiences, which cause the audience to interpret the meaning of a text differently. There  are three different types of reception including dominant reading, negotiated reading and oppositional reader. Dominant reading is where the reader fully accepts the texts meaning and interprets it in a natural way. Negotiated reading is where the reader only partly shares the texts codes and accepts its preferred reading, but sometimes modifies it to fit their lifestyle and experiences. The oppositional reading means that the reader is placed in a completely contrasting position to the text and does not share any similarities with it, causing them to ‘bear an alternative frame of reference’ e.g. feminist.  http://www.slideshare.net/dphillips4363/reception-theory-presentation In my production, I must ensure that anything that a passive audience may not interpret anything in a negative way that could cause complaints or a negative perception of the soap trailer. Anything that someone could argue with and do not relate to must not feel completely offended by the difference in opinions. For example, the portrayal of an African who has moved to England for reasons in his country could cause some contrasting opinions as they could feel that we are not portraying characters in an accurate way.
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