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  went internationally in 1988 and is presently available in Introduction 30 countries across Asia, Middle East and Africa.  Mirror Mirror on the wall who's the fairest of them all? Although Fair and Lovely has been targeted by many This phrase reminds of the famous Disney character social activists and Human rights groups which accuse called Snow white and the world knows about this fairy the brand of being racist and criticize the advertisements tale even though it basically srcinated from Germany. of Fair and Lovely showing unconfident, depressed dark Since ages beauty has been equated with porcelain skin, skinned girls disappointed with their lives transforming rosy cheeks and scarlet lips. But not every Indian girl is into confident, vivacious and fair skinned beauties after  born with a fair skin but in a society where Fairness is an using Fair and Lovely. Despite the recent controversies adjective of beauty the aspiration for a lighter skin is this brand managed to maintain its predominance in the  predominant.Indian market because a significant Indian population is obsessed with fair skin especially in the rural areas and Hindustan Unilever Ltd realized the need of a fairness small towns. The notion of Dusky Diva is restricted to the  product in the market and developed a Fairness Cream in metros only. 1975 named Fair and Lovely. It was marketed nationally in 1978. Soon this magical beauty product became a rage Fair and lovely is the world’s first fairness cream and not only in the Indian market but the positive word of have enjoyed consumer preference since 35 years but mouth also spread across the country. Finally the brand with the launch of International brands like Olay Natural Key Words: brand, differentiation, relevance, esteem, knowledge, brand strength, brand stature, brand asset valuation, brand power This case analyses the Brand value of the world’s first and most selling fairness cream brand using Brand Asset Valuator model proposed by Young and Rubicam. A detailed analysis of Fair & Lovely is done on four basic dimensions of this model Brand Differentiation, Brand Relevance, Brand Esteem and Brand Knowledge which further are clubbed together into two parameters Brand Strength and Brand Stature respectively. Brand Strength predicts the future  performance of a brand and is summation of effective brand differentiation and relevance. Brand stature reflects the current performance of the brand which is an outcome of high brand esteem and relevance.  Fair & Lovely is strong on all the four pillars and occupies the leadership position in its product category because it has constantly revamped itself with the changing needs of the market and has been quick in identifying the present as well as  future challenges and opportunities. Even after more than three decades of its existence the brand still dominates the Skin Fairness Product category because it has ensured that the core Association of Fair & Lovely and healthy fairness does not get diluted with time.  At the end it has been pointed out that over the years Fair & Lovely has restrained itself from Brand Extensions despite its tremendous brand power. The issue is that the predominant brand associations of Fairness and Feminity are in a way restricting the brand from diversification and caging it the existing product category. Thus some innovative strategies need to be formulated in order to efficiently leverage the transcendental Brand Valuation of Fair & Lovely. 12 Saima Khan and Bilal Mustafa Khan Brand Power of Fair & Lovely(A Case study on Fair & Lovely fairness cream) 1  Junior Research Fellow, Department of Business Administration, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Aligarh (E-mail: saimakhan631@gmail.com) 2 Senior Faculty Member, Department of Business Administration, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Aligarh (E-mail: bilalmkhan@rediffmail.com)  Asia-Pacific Marketing Review July-December 2012 pp. 104-114, www.asiapacific.eduVol. I, No. 2, ISSN : 2277-2057   Asia-Pacific Marketing ReviewVol. I, No. 2, July-December 2012 White, Neutrogena Fine Fairness, Garnier Light etc the Active was launched in 2006 as a counter product for competition is burgeoning for Fair and Lovely and thus Emami’s Fair and Handsome which came out in the its getting important for this brand to keep on market in 2005.rediscovering itself but at the same time ensure that it Fair and Lovely at present offers a range of six products.does not lose its srcinality in the long run. This case 1) Fair and Lovely Multivitaminstudy attempts to decipher the brand power of Fair and Lovely and identify the challenges ahead.2)Fair and Lovely Ayurvedic Balance3)Fair and Lovely Anti -marks Fair and Lovely 4)Fair and Lovely Winter Fairness cream Composition 5)Fair and Lovely Menz ActiveThis fairness cream is a synergistic combination of 6)Fair and Lovely face washVitamin B3 (Niacinamide) with UVA and UVB sunscreens working together to shield the skin from Brand Power of Fair and Lovely getting tanned under sun and gently lightening the skin. Consult Brand Strategy, part of Young & Rubicam The brand claims that there are no harmful ingredients (Y&R), has developed a brand equity measure called the such as bleach, steroids, mercury, hydroquinone which Brand Asset TM Valuator (BAV) Y&R’s BAV is a world-damage the skin.wide study of over 500.000 consumers’ attitudes to Fair and lovely needs to be applied twice a day at least for approximately 35.000 brands across the same set of 55 four weeks for visible results and if discontinued then the  parameters in 44 countries, conducted at regular intervals skin tone will revert back to its srcinal color. Thus the over 12 years (Keller 2003a; Consult Brand Strategy fairness process is reversible.2005; Aaker 1996). Brand Asset Valuation measures the  brand value by analysis of four broad dimensions namely Product Line (Exhibit 1):The brand started of selling a single fairness cream but 1)Differentiation – Brand’s point of differencefrom time to time kept on launching new variants in the 2)Relevance- How appropriate is the brand in the market, few of them were successful and rest all were mind of consumer. pulled back within 2or 3 years of their launch. The latest addition in the product line is the Fair and Lovely face 3)Esteem- How well regarded the brand is amongst wash which claims that by using this face wash prior to the consumers.the cream will lead to double fairness. Also a separate 4)Knowledge- Intimate and detailed understanding fairness cream for men called Fair and Lovely Menz of the brand 105 Exhibit 1: Depicting four dimensions of brand value in hierarchy of their importanceKnowledge An intimate understanding of the brands. Esteem How well regarded the brand is. Relevance How appropriate the brand is to you. Differentiation The brand's point of difference (Source: FMCG and Retail Marketing Blog)  Furthermore Differentiation and Relevance can be brand versus other brands and the levels of other product clubbed together to convey a brand’s growth potential attributes (Woodside and Walser, 2007). Brand value or “Brand Vitality” whereas Esteem and Knowledge brand vitality is defined as “a set of assets and liabilities together are indicative of the existing brand power linked to the brand, its name and symbol, which “Brand Stature”(Exhibit 2). In conceptualizing how incorporate or diminish the value supplied by a product customers evaluate brand equity, it is viewed as or service exchanged with the company’s clients” consisting of two components – brand strength and brand (Aaker, 1994). Brand values are the gains that accrue value (Srivastava and Shocker, 1991). Brand strength or when brand strength is leveraged to obtain superior  brand stature is the relative power of attraction of a given current and future profits. © Asia - Pacific Institute of Management, New Delhi 106 Exhibit 2: Interrelationship of Brand Vitality and Brand Stature with each other Brand Asset Valuator (Y&R) www.valuebasedmanagement.netDifferentiationBrand VitalityRelevanceEsteemKnowledgeBrandStatureBrand Value Source: 12 Manage the Executive Fast Track  Fair & Lovely- Brand Differentiation name. Customer-based brand equity has been defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer Fair and Lovely is well differentiated in the minds of the response to the marketing of the brand (Kamakura and consumers as a fairness product because its entire Russell, 1991).  product line comprises of fairness related products unlike Brand essence of Fair& Lovely is ‘Rescripting Destiny’ its competitors like Neutrogena, Oil of Olay or Garnier and targets the masses who aspire to look good, to make who have a host of products in their product basket something out of their lives and promises not only including anti aging, hair care, eye care, lip care etc. fairness but also unfading self confidence that transforms Differentiation measures the strength of a brand’s them from being a Girl next door to the desirable diva meaning. This ways Fair and lovely has always stayed who not only looks good but feels great from inside.true to its name and not diversified into other product categories which could have potentially diluted the brand   Asia-Pacific Marketing ReviewVol. I, No. 2, July-December 2012 In the above Exhibit 3 we can see six faces of the same the sole objective of her life but works hard towards model, the last face is not only dark but also depicts low chasing her dreams and Fair & Lovely helps her stand out self confidence as the model is looking down and and get recognized. Thus now the brand communication gradually as the skin tone lightens the face also lightens implied that Fair & Lovely makes one fair and enhances up with a radiant smile . The girl now maintains an eye one’s self confident which lead to a good career and also contact and evolves from timorousness to exuberance.good husband.Positioning is the process of influencing perceptions by Fair & Lovely also launched the Fair & Lovely specifying the attributes, benefits or images which Foundation that offers scholarships to young girls so that represent differentiation (Kotler, 1997; Sujan and they can complete their education and fulfill their Bettman, 1989). Fair and Lovely has expeditiously professional ambitions. The organization believes that altered its positioning with changing times. At the Education is requisite for an empowered life and a inception phase this brand made sure that it convinces the secured future. This repositioning increased the sales of consumers of being a better alternative for harmful Fair & Lovely tremendously over past eight years. Brand  bleaches which deliver temporary fairness but cause repositioning is a broader term that includes the creation  permanent damage to the skin. However Fair and Lovely and placement of a desired brand in the target customers' was a safe and effective cream that does not contain minds (Czinkota et al., 2001). Fair & Lovely still  bleach and is soft to the skin and guaranteed permanent maintains its market leadership despite facing a tough fairness on daily usage. Having established the function competition from burgeoning international and local  benefits of the brand now the focus shifted to emotional brands entering the Indian market every year. appeal. Now stress was laid to convince the consumers Fair & Lovely- Brand Relevance that this fairness cream is a means to fulfill one’s Relevance determines the franchise size and is distinctly ambitions and aspiration. Majority of Indian women at correlated with market penetration. Fair & Lovely that time were homely and for them getting a good life occupies 53% of the market share in the Indian Fairness  partner was the ultimate objective so Fair & Lovely industry with a remarkable presence in 30 countries.  positioned itself as the cream that helps get one “Man of Relevance implies the actual and perceived importance her Dreams”. The value proposition lucidly of the brand to a large consumer segment. It is an communicated to the consumer base read, Get noticed indicative of how consumers relate with the brand which  by the man of your life. determines the household penetration of the brand (The Later when the focus of young woman shifted from  percentage of households which buy the product). marriage to career the positioning changed and the brand Currently 250 million consumers worldwide connect now a cream that turns dreams into destiny. Now the with Fair & Lovely as a brand that stands for “Beauty  protagonist in the commercial was projected as an that empowers a woman to change her destiny”. ambitious young girl who does not consider marriage as 107 Exhibit 3: Fair and Lovely Commercial Source: Is fair also lovely? Project Carousel
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