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25.10.2014 Scalp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1/7 Search Wikipedia Last edited 2 months ago by Zhouly Scalp For other uses, see Scalp (disambiguation). Scalp Illustration depicting the layers of the scalp and meninges Details Latin scalpus 25.10.2014 Scalp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 2/7 Structure Blood supply Innervation Lymphatic drainage Society and culture Role in aesthetics Hair transplantation Redness i
  25.10.2014Scalp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Search Wikipedia Last edited 2 months ago by Zhouly Scalp For other uses, see Scalp (disambiguation). Scalp Illustration depicting the layers of the scalp and meninges DetailsLatin scalpus  25.10.2014Scalp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia StructureBlood supplyInnervationLymphatic drainageSociety and cultureRole in aestheticsHair transplantationRedness in scalp after surgeryClinical significanceDiseaseScalp conditionsSee alsoReferencesExternal links Artery supratrochlear , supraorbital, superficial temporal, occipital Vein superficial temporal, posterior auricular , occipital Nerve supratrochlear , supraorbital, greater occipital, lesser occipital Lymph occipital, mastoid IdentifiersGray's p.378 MeSH Scalp  Anatomical terminology  The scalp  is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. Contents Structure  25.10.2014Scalp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Diagrammatic section of scalpIllustration of the scalp and meninges The scalp is usually described as having five layers, which can conveniently be rememberedas a mnemonic: [1] S: The skin on the head from which head hair  grows. It contains numerous sebaeceous glands and hair follicles.C: Connective tissue. A dense subcutaneous layer of fat and fibrous tissue that lies beneath the skin, containing the nerves and vessels of the scalp. A: The aponeurosis called epicranial aponeurosis (or galea aponeurotica) is the next layer.It is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to theoccipitalis posteriorly.L: The loose areolar connective tissue layer provides an easy plane of separation betweenthe upper three layers and the pericranium. In scalping the scalp is torn off through this layer. Italso provides a plane of access in craniofacial surgery and neurosurgery. This layer is sometimes referred to as the danger zone because of the ease by which infectious agentscan spread through it to emissary veins which then drain into the cranium. The loose areolar  tissue in this layer is made up of random collagen I bundles, collagen III. It will also be rich inglycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and will be constituted of more matrix than fibers. This layer allows the more superficial layers of the scalp to shift about in relation to the pericranium.P: The pericranium is the periosteum of the skull bones and provides nutrition to the boneand the capacity for repair. It may be lifted from the bone to allow removal of bone windows(craniotomy).  25.10.2014Scalp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The clinically important layer is the aponeurosis. Scalp lacerations through this layer meanthat the anchoring of the superficial layers is lost and gaping of the wound occurs; thisrequires suturing. This can be achieved with simple or vertical mattress sutures using a non-absorbable material, which are subsequently removed at around days 7-10. Blood supply  The blood supply of the scalp is via five pairs of arteries, three from the external carotid andtwo from the internal carotid:internal carotidthe supratrochlear artery to the midline forehead. The supratrochlear artery is a branch of the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery.the supraorbital artery to the lateral forehead and scalp as far up as the vertex. Thesupraorbital artery is a branch of the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery.external carotidthe superficial temporal artery gives off frontal and parietal branches to supply much of the scalpthe occipital artery which runs posteriorly to supply much of the posterior aspect of thescalpthe posterior auricular artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, ascends behind theauricle to supply the scalp above and behind the auricle.Note: The walls of the blood vessels are firmly attached to the fibrous tissue of the superficialfascial layer, hence cut ends of vessels here do not readily retract; Even a small scalp woundmay bleed profusely. Innervation Innervation is the connection of nerves to the scalp: the sensory and motor nerves innervatingthe scalp. The scalp is innervated by the following: [2] Supratrochlear nerve and the supraorbital nerve from the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerveGreater occipital nerve (C2) posteriorly up to the vertexLesser occipital nerve (C2) behind the ear Zygomaticotemporal nerve from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve supplying the hairless temple Auriculotemporal nerve from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
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