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Social Studies Term 3 Final

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Sabis Erbil Social Studies Notes. Term 3 Final
   1 Social Studies Term III Final Term I Causes of World War I  –   Rival Alliances    Since 1871 the strongest nation in Europe was Germany, led by Bismarck o   Bismarck‟s policy was to keep the peace   o   In 1871 Germany had defeated France and Austria Hungary, Germany could only  be beaten by a combination of states (states working together), so Bismarck worked to keep enemies isolated (alone)    Bismarck focused this on France    Most suitable ally for France was Russia because Germany would face war in east and west     Next suitably ally was Austria-Hungary    SO Bismarck signed treaties with both Russia and Austria-Hungary    Three Emperors‟ League, 1872   o   Friendship treaty with rulers of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia o   Worked for a short time, BUT Russia and Austria-Hungary could not agree about the Ottoman Empire    Russia wanted to split it up into separate states which Russia could control    Austria Hungary (ruled by the Hapsburgs) wanted the empire to remain    Congress of Berlin, 1878 o   Austria-Hungary helped to stop Russian expansion in the Balkans, arguments between the two countries increased o   Bismarck tried to make them stay friends, did not work o   Bismarck had to choose one of them, chose to stay friends with Austria Hungary because it was easily beaten    Dual Alliance o   Between Germany and Austria Hungary    Became Triple Alliance in 1882 when Italy joined    Reinsurance Treaty o   Bismarck signed this treaty with Russia to guarantee neutrality between the two in any war, as long as Germany did not attack France or Russia attack Austria    By 1890, B ismarck‟s policy of isolating France had failed      William II became Kaiser (Emperor) of Germany o   Vain man who liked to brag and wanted to be popular o    Not a clever politician o   Fought with Bismarck and fired him in 1890 o   Chose ministers who were not as capable o   Allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to expire   2 Trouble in the Balkans    Austria Hungary was happy they had won the Balkan Wars, but they were afraid their empire would be attacked by a Balkan League    Austria Hungary faced a danger from within, there were six million Serbs in the country    Prime Minister Pasic, leader of Serbia, could not control the fanatics (extremists) in Serbia o   Organizations like Union or Death (Black Hand Society) lead by Colonel Apis    Fought for Serbs to be freed from Austrian rule    There were many people in Austria Hungary who believed that the country should invade Serbia and defeat them since they posed a threat to Austria-Hungary o   Influenced by General Conrad von Hotzendorf    Because the Prime Minister of Serbia could not control the extremists inside his country and because of the forces in Austria Hungary that wanted a war between the two countries, any small event was likely to make war happen o   28 June 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia    Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austrian throne and his wife Sophia Chotek were in town for an official visit    First a man named Nedjelko Cabrinovic threw a bomb at the Archduke‟s car but the Archduke swatted it away       Next, a young man named Gavrilo Princip, shot and killed both the Archduke and his wife Invasion of Belgium    After the assassination of the Archduke, people were surprised that Austria-Hungary did not take quick action against Serbia o   Austria was worried about invading Serbia because they thought Russia would get involved so they had to be sure of German support o   Austria got the support of Kaiser William (the Kaiser supported them because he felt sure that Russia was not ready for war)    23 July o   Austria Hungary gave Serbia government their conditions    Serbia must stop encouraging nationalist propaganda, allow Austrian officials in Serbia to destroy revolutionary movements, and punish all those involved in the murder plot and prevent arms and explosives from crossing the border    Prime Minister Pasic agreed to all conditions EXCEPT allow Austrian forces into Serbia o   28 July  –   Austria declared war    Russia started to prepare her troops    This left Germany in a difficult situation    Their war plan depended on attacking and defeating France quickly and then fighting Russia    BUT if Russia got ready during peacetime, the plan wouldn‟t work  because Germany would be forced to fight a war on two fronts    Germany ordered Russia to stop preparing troops, Russia refused o   Germany declared war on Russia and France   3    Following their war plan (Schlieffen Plan), Germany attacked France first    One of the issues of the Schlieffen plan was the neutrality of Belgium o   This had been guaranteed by Treaty of London (1839)    Britain wanted to keep an area so close to their coast neutral and out of enemy hands    Had gone to war before because of enemies occupy Belgium    Germany didn‟t really have a choice, and the leaders of Germany weren‟t worried about Britain (underestimated the power of Britain‟s navy)   o   2 August, Germany asked permission from Belgium to cross borders, Belgium refused so Germans invaded The Marne o   Germany army had little trouble invading Belgium and France, but invading Paris would  prove difficult o   6 September  –   General Joffre, French commander, decided to counter attack the Germans o   Battle of the Marne  –   one of the most important in history    French attacked Germans from Paris and from the south    Taxis carried French soldiers from Paris to the battle    First large scale use of motor transport in war    French were able to defeat the Germans The Western Front o   From 1914-1916 o   The Western Front was established after the Battle of the Marne, and it hardly moved more than a few kilometers during the war o   Formed of long trenches, barbed wire, and millions of soldiers and tons of equipment in the trenches o   Early 1915  –   French attacked near Compiegne, suffered 90,000 casualties o   March  –   British won at Neuve-Chapelle and got a few square kilometers of land o    Next month, the Germans used gas against the British o   Tens of thousands died for very little change o   Battle of Loos  –   many men died in the terrible battle o   21 February 1916  –   Germans tried to take French fortresses around Verdun o   Germans almost captured the area, but French General Petain led his men to defeat the Germans but it was a long and very bloody battle   4 Tern II    Adolf Hitler o   Born 1889 in Austria-Hungary o   Father was a customs official on the German border o   Did not do well in school o   Went to Vienna in 1908 to become an artist o   Was not accepted into in the Art Academy in Vienna and did odd jobs to survive, was sometimes very poor o   He grew to hate Vienna and the mixture of races living in Vienna (Jews, Croats, Czechs) o   Like most Austrians he loved everything German o   Was happy when his country went to war in 1914    Joined army and was a brave soldier o   Returned to a Germany that had been defeated and was divided    Weimar Republic    –   new government in Germany, not proud like the last government. This government had signed the Versailles Peace Treaty which was hated by all Germans    Lots of revolutions, riots and disobedience    Germany was in chaos o   1923  –   French army occupied Ruhr coal-fields because Germany failed to make  payments as required by Peace Treaty, German workers fought against their old enemy    Eventually the work stopped completely    80% of Germany‟s coal, iron, and steel had come from this area so this had a strong negative effect on Germany    Production slowed down and unemployment increased    Germany money collapsed    January 1923  –   72,000 marks (Germany money) = 1 GBP (British money)     November 1923  –   16 billion marks = 1 GBP    Germans‟ savings were now worthless      Hitler started his political career in Munich where he worked for the army to turn soldiers against peaceful, democratic ideas o   His words appealed to people‟s feelings, not their reason o   He developed a foll owing called the German Workers‟ Party   o   Joined by the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis)  in 1920    Their badge was the swastika o   Hitler knew that people were looking for someone to blame for all of Germany‟s  problems    He said Jews and communists i n Germany were to blame for Army‟s defeats    This wasn‟t true, but lots of people believed it      November criminals    –   said that these people had made Germany sign the peace deal
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