Documents

SOCTEC 2 Lecture Summary

Categories
Published
of 14
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Description
Daniel Carlo M. Fabila Lecture Summary
Transcript
  SOCTEC 2Science, Technology and Society 2Topic: Science, technology and the development process: the dynamics of theinteractions between scientific and technological development with state-building, capitalism, moderniation andglobaliation!ey Concept oints for #nderstanding:  The $evelopment rocess o %ost people define development as a process of change, progress and moderniation& o 'owever, development could also be seen beyond the material dimension and needs of human beings and in the conte(t of their political and even spiritual development& o The dominant model of development sees it as synonymous with economic growth& )s such, it is associated with increasing productive capacities of economies to generate wealth& *ts main indicators include moderniation, westerniation and industrialiation of what used to be traditional societies& o 'owever, a growth-oriented model of development, which produced positive changes in the lives of some people, also produced negative impacts& There are many e(amples where the gap between the rich and the poor within countries further  widened, even as the same is also true between rich and poor countries& +urthermore, growth models for development created more dependency of poor countries on rich countries, and further impoverished many sectors even as they benefited only the elite sectors of society, and the interests of richer countries& o The problem which growth-models of development produced led to the development of alternative models for development&  There are those who loo at development in terms of the human dimension& This perspective recognies the need for economic and material development, but goes beyond this by also focusing on political empowerment, political development, and even moral and spiritual development&  There are also those who see development as a product of 1  a estern, capitalist and male-dominated perspectives& This particular view advances as alternative models of development those processes that puts value on indigenous practices, or more sustainable development and less capitalist and profit-oriented practices, or practicesthat are more .feminine/&  Theories of social and technical change o $evelopment entails a process of social change, and science andtechnology play a big role in the process& o The relationships between social change and technical change can be seen in three perspectives: techno-determinism, structural functionalism,  and historical materialism.  Techno-determinism,  whose main e(ponent is 0&!& 1albraith, considers technology as the main driver for social change& Such view is supported by the argument that the universal application of technology has led to industrialiation& Technological developments in orth )merica and Europe became the main engines that that drove the industrial revolution, and caused significant changes in the economy, politics and culture of human societies not only in these places but worldwide&  Structural functionalism,  which is mainly espoused by && 3ostow, loos at social changes as an evolutionary process& )s such, change is viewed as gradual and incremental, wherein the ideal state is characteried by balance and harmony, and wherein conflict is seen as dysfunctional and abnormal& This view argues that societies start as traditional characteried mainly by limited production& This is caused by the prevalence of primitive technologies and of spiritual worldviews, which were the dominant characteristics of the  pre-industrial stage.   The emergence of modern science and the development of modern technologies gradually drove traditional societies tobecome more modern, and prepared them for economic .tae-off&/ These societies eventually too-off with the further moderniation of scientific and technological activities& This was seen during the period of the industrial 2  revolution. The continued development of scientific nowledge and technological innovation eventually drive society to achieve full maturity, where the main economic activity is the production of consumer goods, and where consumption now e(ceeds needs, a society that can be considered as e(periencing a state of .high mass consumption&/ Such final state is now referred to as the  post-industrial stage.  The third theoretical perspective, which draws its theoretical roots from %ar(ism, is referred to as historical materialism.  hile structural functionalism believes in evolutionary change, historical materialism posits a dynamic view of society, and considers conflict and contradiction as the ey processes that drive social change& This is in contrast to structural functionalism which considers conflict as dysfunctional& 'istorical materialists argue that the historical development of society is driven bythe contradiction between social forces at a given time& Theresolution, or synthesis, of such conflict paves the way for the emergence of a new period& %ar( and other historical-materialists define society according to the manner by  which social institutions are organied in relation to the conversion of nature into products and commodities, referred to as modes of production.  Transformations in the modes of production were seen in the succession from primitive socialism, to inship modes, to feudalism, then to capitalism, and finally to communism& The process of transformation in the modes of production emanates from the inherent conflict between social classes within such mode of production& Technology, in this conte(t, is now seen as comprising the forces of production,  which in the conte(t of a given mode of production is under the control of the ruling class and is used by it to maintain the status 4uo& 'owever, the ruling class may eventually lose control  when it is unable to control the emerging technologies& This situation may eventually lead to a crisis, and the socialclass that has the capacity to control the emerging 3  technologies is the one who will become the revolutionary class and challenge the current ruling class& This view could be clearly illustrated in the transition from feudalism to capitalism in Europe& *n feudalism, the mode of production is land-based, and the dominant technologies are agricultural in nature of which the ruling landlords have control& 'owever, during the industrial revolution, the production process shifted from agriculture to industry& This was facilitated by the development of industrial technologies used by the nascent or early industrial classes& Eventually, the bourgeoisie or the capitalist class that ac4uired control over these emerging technologies became the revolutionary class which challenged the landlords and eventually too control of society in the conte(t of a capitalist mode of production& 'owever, this framewor becomes problematic when we apply it in the analysis of the transition from capitalism to socialism& *n %ar(ist theory, the revolutionary class in advanced capitalism is supposed to be the woring class, who provides the fundamental technology for human labor& 'owever, the emergence of mechaniation and the development of information technology, artificial intelligence, and nowledge in robotics have effectively displaced the woring class& These technologies are not controlled by the revolutionary woring class, but are instead controlled by the technocratic class composed of science-based technical e(perts&  The relationship between science and technology on one hand and the development process on the other can be understood in the conte(t of four basic processes& These are moderniation, the development of the modern state and its attendant bureaucratic organiations, the development of a capitalist economy, and globaliation& o Science, Technology and %oderniation  %oderniation is a process of social change, wherein a given society moves from a primitive state towards an advanced and modern state& This movement is unidirectional, and is considered to be good since it implies 4

UNIX Scripting

Jul 23, 2017
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks