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    reviewed paper    Proceedings REAL CORP 2012 Tagungsband   14-16 May 2012, Schwechat. http://www.corp.at   ISBN: 978-3-9503110-2-0 (CD-ROM); ISBN: 978-3-9503110-3-7 (Print) Editors: Manfred SCHRENK, Vasily V. POPOVICH, Peter ZEILE, Pietro ELISEI 775  “Spaces -In- Between” –   Reweaving the City along its Inner Edges Silja Tillner (Mag. arch. Silja Tillner, Architekten Tillner & Willinger, silja.tillner@tw-arch.at) 1 INTRODUCTION The continually growing urbanisation inevitably leads to densification of the existing urban fabric in cities worldwide. Land resource for new buildings, especially residential, has become scarce, therefore risen in  prices. Residents in well-established neighbourhoods usually object to densification. Higher demand for outdoor activities has increased the pressure on existing open spaces. Therefore, it is essential to locate and secure new open space resources as found in abundance along transportation corridors, due to previous generous land acquisitions in the course of building infrastructure. In the 1950s and 1960s traffic planners allocated these corridors preferably in topographically advantageous locations, i.e valleys between hills. Today, more environmentally friendly modes of transportation further upgrade these longitudinal stretches of land, which now present an unprecedented and highly valuable resource for the residents in inner-city locations. Furthermore, the corridors should be transformed from a dividing barrier to a permeable open space. The sites should be planned with community participation in order to accommodate different needs in a changing society and increase identification with the neighborhoods. This participation process will contribute to mutual understanding of the residents’ diversity in the process of re -mixing the city. The “reweaving process”will be investigated by exploring 3 practical examples from 1994 until 2011. The design proposals were developed bottom-up with active community participation in the case of L.A., interactive and based on a thorough investigation of community needs in the two cases in Vienna. In future, as an accompaniment to further urbanisation and densification of the existing urban fabric, more open space has to be allocated. The infrastructure corridors present a unique opportunity for this land aquisition for the benefit of the citizens. On one hand, these corridors were conceived generously with future growth in mind - which will not happen any more, as street widening projects have become highly unpopular. On the other hand, infrastructure needs and mobility concepts are currently changing rapidly:  parallel train tracks are reduced in width, streets are used more efficiently and multi-modal. The space that can be gained by these future transformations should be used for the benefit of the citizens to create longitudinal corridors of green open space. A special case is traffic infrastructure adjacent to rivers which doubles the barrier effect for the neighboring communities. The generous width of these corridors present opportunities for creative solutions to rearrange the traffic flow and improve river accessibility as well as connectivity for the separated sides of the communities. 2 THE GLENDALE FREEWAY IN LOS ANGELES The finely grained communities of Echo Park and Silver Lake, prominently located about a mile from downtown L.A. and graced by the natural beauty of the hilly landscape and two lakes, have been divided by the I-2 Freeway since the 1960s. This case study shows the potential of its partial removal. Fig. 1: Echo Park and Silverlake shown on a historical aerial photo in the 1950s  “Spaces -In- Between” –   Reweaving the City along its Inner Edges 776  REAL CORP 2012: RE-MIXING THE CITY  –  Towards Sustainability and Resilience?    This was a time when traffic planners showed little sensibility to the needs of local residents. In spite of massive protests against the necessary evictions in the path of the I-2, freeway construction continued until even CALTRANS, the California Transportation Agency, and local government could no longer ignore the community uproar. The evicted home-owners were given insufficient compensation for their lost property which did not allow them to buy new homes and often led to subsequent poverty. The remaining residents on the edge of the freeway suffered from a severe devaluation of their property due to the negative environmental impacts. Fig. 2 left: the construction process of the Glendale Freeway Fig.3 right: Echo Park / Silverlake 2011 Fig.4 left map showing the land owned by CALTRANS adjacent to the freeway, right map shows in red the proposed section of the I-2 freeway to be removed In the mid 1960s CALTRANS halted the I-2 Freeway construction and built an off-ramp onto Glendale Boulevard that was intended for temporary use until protests would hopefully subside. On the contrary, community groups have stayed alert until the present day and became one of the most active in all of Los Angeles. Fig. 5: The End of the Glendale Freeway in 1990  –   a steep off-ramp merges onto Glendale Boulevard towards Downtown L.A. Dangerous and unattractive underpaths are the only safe crossing passages for pedestrians. Since traffic planers had secured much wider swaths of land than actually needed, the freeway was accompanied by now publicly owned vacant land. A visionary project, developed by the author at GSAUP-UCLA, to remove the controversial off-ramp and realign the traffic flow in order to secure open space for local benefit (community-gardens, a connecting plaza bridge ect.) was welcomed enthusiastically by the community groups. Their support eventually awakened politicians to the potential of the area and inspired them to finance further in-depth planning. As a consequence Gruen Associates and Tillner were commissioned by the LADOT (Los Angeles Department of Transpo rtation) to develop the “Glendale Corridor Plan”, a planning document which was awarded the AIPA (American Institute of Planning) Award in 1994. The intention ofthe plan was to increase public transport ridership, allocate space for HOV lanes, reduce traffic lanes for individual drivers and allocate green open space.  Silja Tillner Proceedings REAL CORP 2012 Tagungsband   14-16 May 2012, Schwechat. http://www.corp.at   ISBN: 978-3-9503110-2-0 (CD-ROM); ISBN: 978-3-9503110-3-7 (Print) Editors: Manfred SCHRENK, Vasily V. POPOVICH, Peter ZEILE, Pietro ELISEI 777  Today, the off-ramp still exists, but some improvements were implemented on the adjacent land, since the “Space -In- Between” next to the ramp has been reused as a sports -field. Pedestrian safety has been improved  by the installment of additional traffic lights to slow down through-traffic and enable pedestrians to cross the street safely. But the majority of the ambitious plans could not be implemented due to continuous conflicts of interest between CALTRANS, the advocate for individual drivers, and LADOT, the advocate for additional high capacity public transportation corridors and the community groups that favored a more radical reduction of through traffic based on the Tillner plan. Ongoing discussions in the community still consider a more visionary and environmentally ambitious solution. Currently, the Echo Park community has organized an internet forum to improve the situation and increase the safety for pedestrians. The potential to regain the right of way for public transportation and create a “green boulevard” is still intact. Hope remains, the current community efforts will lead to a rethinking at the level of transportation planning and finally to a successful redesign. Fig. 6: The potential transformation of the last mile of the I-2 Freeway into a green boulevard 3 THE VIENNA GÜRTEL BOULEVARD In the 1950s and 1960s, the popularity of automobile traffic led to an enormous increase of cars travelling on Vienna’s streets. The formerly tree-lined Gürtel Boulevard had reached capacity. Green space was reduced for the sake of street widening, asphalt replaced grass and soon the viaduct had become an isolated island in the center of an eight lane inner city highway. The increase in car traffic led to the further decay of the area: the building stock fell in disrepair and a red light-district spread along the Gürtel street and the connecting roads. The negative image of the whole Gürtel neighborhood led to further erosion and devaluation of the area and the adjacent properties. Negative press in numerous articles criticizing the traffic nightmare, environmental pollution and the social degradation of the red light district, was lamented. The Gürtel area was given up as a “hopeless” case.   3.1   Situation at the beginning of the URBION project in 1995 With over 85,000 vehicles/day, the Vienna Gürtel forms the transportation backbone for an area extending six kilometers with ten municipal districts bordering its busy lanes. Looking at Vienna’s demogr  aphic distribution, a possible concept for the western Gürtel emerged. Although the core urban structure of the city is organised along radial-concentric lines, the highest residential density is in the western Gürtel neighbourhoods. Accordingly, the Gürte l could function as a new linear urban “centre” that features a high-performance means of transport, i.e. the Stadtbahn. Instead, in 1995 the neglected western Gürtel assumed the unfavourable traits common to the urban periphery or an access/exit highway: dilapidated buildings, high traffic density, few retail shops or commercial and industrial sites. Thus, the western Gürtel found itself in the paradoxical situation of an inner-city fringe. The Stadtbahn viaduct was no longer a connecting (as in Wagner’s c oncept), but rather a separating element. The explosiveness of this  problem was palpable if one examined the failing neighbourhood development and stunted commercial dynamics. What was happening in the western Gürtel areas was in fact a form of commercial blight, exacerbated by increasing motorisation., as seen in Fig. 9.  “Spaces -In- Between” –   Reweaving the City along its Inner Edges 778  REAL CORP 2012: RE-MIXING THE CITY  –  Towards Sustainability and Resilience?    Fig. 7: The western part of the Vienna Gürtel, highlighted the area selected for urban intervention in the EU-URBAN program 3.2   The main objectives of the URBION project After numerous and inconclusive planning projects in the 1980s that had proposed expensive infrastructure investments, i.e. tunnels and road reconstruction projects, the City decided against these plans and searched for a novel and more sensitive approach with a different focus. As a consequence, Silja Tillner, who had specialized on similar projects in Los Angeles, was commissioned by the planning department to develop a Gürtel urban design study. The city planners realized that measures taken on the basis of long-term and cost-intensive so- called “hard“ location factors, i.e. improving the urban infrastructure, are only one facet. However, measures taken on the basis of so- called “soft“ location factors are also important. This refers to the results of Tillner’s study i n 1994 which included a strategy of image transposition and visual improvement of the Gürtel by means of small-scale, urbanistically active functions in the fields of culture and entertainment. Having acknowledged this, the direction given by the client, the City of Vienna, was to concentrate the planning and urban design on these “soft” factors.   3.3   The URBION Gürtel Financing  –   EU Funding In 1994 the City of Vienna applied for EU grants from the community initiative, URBAN, which was set up to aid the improv ement of living conditions in problem zones in major European cities. The “1994 Gürtel Urban Design Study” was included in the application.  In 1995 EU grants from the community initiative, URBAN, for the City of Vienna funding mechanism, URBAN-Wien Gürtel Plus , were approved. As an area with high levels of unemployment, poverty and  poor housing conditions the urban districts on either side of the Gürtel, were registered as a problem urban area . The City of Vienna presented an improvement concept which complied with the principles of sustainability and private-public partnership and included a total of 60 projects and initiatives to improve the building fabric, attract new small businesses, promote cultural initiatives, social advice centres and improvements to the infrastructure. Silja Tillner was responsible for the URBION component.
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