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The Praxis Study Companion Spanish: World Language Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know You have been working
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The Praxis Study Companion Spanish: World Language 5195 Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion Welcome to The Praxis Study Companion Prepare to Show What You Know You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis test. Using The Praxis Series Study Companion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day. This guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time. The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including: An overview of the Praxis tests Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking A template study plan Study topics Practice questions and explanations of correct answers Test-taking tips and strategies Frequently asked questions Links to more detailed information So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need to revisit. Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before test day. Keep in mind that study habits are individual. There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic. You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you. Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck! Know What to Expect Which tests should I take? Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take for the teaching area you wish to pursue. Before you register for a test, confirm your state or agency s testing requirements at How are the Praxis tests given? Praxis tests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (see page 45). The Praxis Study Companion 2 Welcome to the Praxis Study Companion What should I expect when taking the test on computer? When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identification at the test center. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how to answer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing time begins. Watch the What to Expect on Test Day video to see what the experience is like. Where and when are the Praxis tests offered? You can select the test center that is most convenient for you. The Praxis tests are administered through an international network of test centers, which includes Prometric Testing Centers, some universities, and other locations throughout the world. Testing schedules may differ, so see the Praxis Web site for more detailed test registration information at www. ets.org/praxis/register. The Praxis Study Companion 3 Table of Contents Table of Contents The Praxis Study Companion guides you through the steps to success 1. Learn About Your Test...5 Learn about the specific test you will be taking 2. Familiarize Yourself with Test Questions Become comfortable with the types of questions you ll find on the Praxis tests 3. Practice with Sample Test Questions Answer practice questions and find explanations for correct answers 4. Determine Your Strategy for Success Set clear goals and deadlines so your test preparation is focused and efficient 5. Develop Your Study Plan Develop a personalized study plan and schedule 6. Review Study Topics Review study topics with questions for discussion 7. Review Smart Tips for Success Follow test-taking tips developed by experts 8. Check on Testing Accommodations See if you qualify for accommodations that may make it easier to take the Praxis test 9. Do Your Best on Test Day Get ready for test day so you will be calm and confident 10. Understand Your Scores Understand how tests are scored and how to interpret your test scores Appendix: Other Questions You May Have The Praxis Study Companion 4 Step 1: Learn About Your Test 1. Learn About Your Test Learn about the specific test you will be taking Spanish: World Language (5195) Test Name Spanish: World Language Test at a Glance Test Code 5195 Time Approximately 3 hours, including the Listening with Cultural Knowledge Practice and the optional Writing Practice with the built-in character toolbar for the Writing section Number of Questions 75 selected-response questions and 6 constructed-response questions Format Listening with Cultural Knowledge Practice (not scored); 6 selected-response questions (10 minutes) Section 1. Listening with Cultural Knowledge; 36 selected-response questions (50 minutes) Section 2. Reading with Cultural Knowledge; 39 selected-response questions (50 minutes) Writing Practice (not scored); one optional practice constructed-response exercise using the built-in character toolbar (5 minutes) Section 3. Writing, with 3 constructed-response tasks (50 minutes) Section 4. Speaking, with 3 constructed-response tasks (15 minutes) Test Delivery Computer delivered Approximate Approximate Content Categories Number of Percentage of Questions Examination IV V III I II I. Interpretive Listening, 30 selected response 26% including embedded linguistic content II. Interpretive Reading, 30 selected response 26% including embedded linguistic content III. Cultural Knowledge 15 selected response 12% (Tested in Sections 1 and 2) IV. Interpersonal and Presentational 3 written responses 18% Writing (constructed response) V. Presentational and Interpersonal 3 spoken responses 18% Speaking (constructed response) The Praxis Study Companion 5 Step 1: Learn About Your Test About This Test This test is designed to measure the knowledge, skills, and abilities of examinees who have had preparation in a program for teaching Spanish in grades K 12. Because programs in teaching Spanish are offered at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, this test is appropriate for examinees at either level. All sections of this test are at the Advanced-Low level, as described in the proficiency guidelines of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). This test integrates listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills, as well as linguistic and cultural knowledge, through active participation in a variety of questions in the interpretive modes (in the Listening and Reading sections) and in the interpersonal and presentational modes (in the Writing and Speaking sections). The Listening and Reading sections of the test are composed of selected-response questions, whereas the Writing and Speaking sections are composed of constructed-response tasks. All questions and answer choices are in Spanish and are based on various genres of authentic material, whether written or in audio format, from various Spanish-speaking regions of the world. This is a computer-based test with sections of various lengths and time constraints. All sections of the test are separately timed. While the time allotted in the Reading and Writing sections is managed by the candidate, timing is computer controlled throughout the Listening and Speaking sections. Prior to beginning the Listening section, the candidate will participate in a practice exercise reflecting the type of questions in the Listening section. Similarly, there is a writing practice exercise prior to the Writing section to acquaint candidates with a special character toolbar that they will be using to type their individual responses in Spanish. This test may contain some questions that do not count toward your score. Test Specifications Test specifications in this chapter describe the knowledge and skills measured by the test. Study topics to help you prepare to answer test questions can be found in 6. Review Study Topics on page 38. I. Content Categories I, II, IV, and V Language, Linguistics, and Comparisons (88%) A. Demonstrating language proficiency in the target language (at the Advanced Low level, as described in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages [ACTFL] Proficiency Guidelines) The beginning Spanish teacher: 1. Knows how to communicate in the target language with native speakers unaccustomed to interacting with nonnative speakers, with sufficient accuracy, clarity, and precision to convey the intended message 2. Knows how to communicate in the interpersonal mode (speaking) by participating actively in informal and formal conversations on topics covering home, school, leisure activities, and current events 3. Knows how to communicate in the interpersonal mode (writing) in written exchanges on daily topics 4. Comprehends in the interpretive mode (listening) main ideas and supporting details of audio segments, such as news items, short stories, social notices, and reports on familiar topics that deal with factual information 5. Comprehends in the interpretive mode (reading) main ideas and supporting details of printed texts, such as news items, short stories, social notices, and reports on familiar topics that deal with factual information 6. Knows how to negotiate meaning in order to sustain an interaction 7. Knows how to move beyond literal comprehension in the interpretive mode (listening) by inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases in new contexts, inferring and interpreting the author s intent, and offering a personal interpretation of the message The Praxis Study Companion 6 Step 1: Learn About Your Test 8. Knows how to move beyond literal comprehension in the interpretive mode (reading) by inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases in new contexts, inferring and interpreting the author s intent, and offering a personal interpretation of the message 9. Understands the gist of normal conversational speech on a variety of topics 10. Knows how to communicate in the presentational mode (writing) by writing routine social correspondence, as well as coherent narratives, descriptions, and summaries about familiar topics of a factual nature in paragraph length in present, past, and future tense 11. Knows how to communicate orally in the presentational mode (speaking) by delivering oral presentations on familiar literary or cultural topics and incorporating extra linguistic support to facilitate oral presentations that are extemporaneous or prepared but not read B. Understanding linguistics linguistic features of the target language The beginning Spanish teacher: 1. Understands the rules of the sound system of the target language (i.e., recognizing phonemes and allophones) 2. Recognizes key cohesive devices (conjunctions and adverbs) used in connected discourse 3. Understands high-frequency idiomatic expressions and can infer meaning of words and sentences 4. Knows how to explain the rules that govern the formation of words and sentences in the target language 5. Knows how to exemplify the rules with examples from the target language, such as the verb structures and verb tenses, pronouns, agreement (such as subject/verb, adjective/noun), word order, and interrogatives, both in terms of regularities and irregularities 6. Knows how to identify and use the pragmatic and sociolinguistic conventions and register (formal and informal forms of address) II. C. Comparing the target language with English The beginning Spanish teacher: 1. Knows how to identify similarities and differences between the target language and English 2. Knows how to contrast syntactical patterns of simple sentences and questions in the target language with those of English Content Category III Cultures, Literatures, and Cross-disciplinary Concepts (12%) A. Demonstrating cultural understanding connections among the perspectives of the target culture and its practices and products The beginning Spanish teacher: 1. Knows the three Ps: a. perspectives (such as attitudes, ideas, and values) b. practices (patterns of behavior and social interaction, such as greetings, turn taking, and rites of passage) c. products (such as foods, architecture, literature, art, and music) 2. Recognizes the value and role of authentic literary and cultural texts such as songs, poems, rhymes and chants, children s books, narrative text, and novels and usage of those texts to interpret and reflect on the perspectives of the target culture The Praxis Study Companion 7 Step 1: Learn About Your Test Test Sections The Listening Practice section, Section 1 (Listening), and Section 4 (Speaking) are recorded. For Section 4, you must answer the questions when instructed to do so on the recording. Descriptions of the test sections are provided below. Listening Practice Section - Interpretive Mode: Listening with Cultural Knowledge This section allows you to listen to an audio selection in Spanish and to practice answering questions based on that selection in the time allotted. This Listening Practice section is timed separately from the Listening section that folllows, and the time you spend practicing will not be counted toward the time allotted to answering the questions in the Listening section. The questions in this section will NOT be scored and will NOT affect your results in any way. Section 1 - Interpretive Mode: Listening with Cultural Knowledge The selections in Section 1 are recorded. In this section, you will hear a variety of selections, such as radio broadcasts, narratives, and dialogues, in Spanish. Each selection is followed by six questions. Each selection will be played twice. You will hear the selection and then you will have 60 seconds to preview the questions before the selection plays a second time. For each question, choose the response that is best, relative to the selection. The last two questions may test your knowledge of culture and linguistics. You may take notes as you listen. Your notes will not be graded. After listening to a selection the second time, you will see six questions presented one at a time. You will have 20 seconds to answer each question. A clock at the top of the screen will indicate how much time is remaining to answer the question. The entire Listening section lasts approximately 50 minutes. When the response time has ended, you will automatically be taken to the next question. You will not be able to return to previous questions. Section 2 - Interpretive Mode: Reading with Cultural Knowledge In this section, you will be presented with a variety of selections, such as newspaper articles, excerpts of literary passages, and other materials, in Spanish. Each selection is followed by six questions. The last two questions may test your knowledge of culture and linguistics. In addition, you will be presented with some visual stimuli (e.g., photographs or works of art), each accompanied by a single cultural knowledge question. You may take notes as you read, but only on the scratch paper that will be provided. Your notes will not be graded. Each of the questions is followed by four suggested answers. Select the one that is best in each case. Cultural Knowledge The culture questions are in Spanish and are part of Section 1 (Listening) and Section 2 (Reading). Questions focus on connections among the perspectives of the target culture and its practices and products. Section 3 - Interpersonal and Presentational Writing There are three tasks in this section. Be sure to complete each task. Please pace yourself as you work. Type your answers in Spanish in the space provided. For Spanish-specific characters (e.g., ñ, é, í,, etc.), use the built-in character toolbar (click here to view a demo of the toolbar). You should give as complete a response as possible. Your written Spanish should be acceptable to a wide range of native speakers. You may use the scratch paper that will be provided to take notes on each task. These notes will not be used in evaluating your response. Your writing will be evaluated on the following: Overall comprehensibility to a native speaker of Spanish who is not accustomed to the writing of nonnative learners Accuracy and appropriateness of content Presentation of ideas in a related and logical manner Appropriateness of vocabulary Accuracy of grammar and mechanics (including spelling and diacritical marks) Cohesiveness (including use of varied sentence structure and transitional expressions where appropriate) The Praxis Study Companion 8 Step 1: Learn About Your Test Appropriateness for a given task and/or reader (register) The extent to which each task is completed Interpersonal Writing: Response to an , Memo, or Letter You will be given an , memo, or letter to which you will write an appropriate response in Spanish. First, read the , memo, or letter. Then, write your response in the space provided. Manage your time so that you allow enough time to plan, write, and revise your response. Your answer should be a minimum of 60 words. Presentational Writing: Opinion/Position Essay You will be asked to write an essay in Spanish on a specific topic. First, read the topic. Then, write your response in the space provided. Make sure that your essay includes reasons and/or examples to support your opinion. Manage your time so that you have enough time to plan, write, and revise your response. Typically, an effective essay will contain a minimum of 120 words. Presentational Writing: Integrated Skills You will read a passage in Spanish. This passage will appear in both the Writing and the Speaking sections. After reading the passage, you will complete a writing task based on the passage. Your response should be a minimum of 120 words and must be in Spanish. Write your response in the space provided. Manage your time so that you have time to plan, write, and revise your response. Section 4 - Presentational and Interpersonal Speaking This section includes three tasks and is designed to measure different aspects of your ability to speak Spanish. Although you need not speak for the entire time allotted, you should give as complete a response as possible. For each speaking task in the test, you will be given time to prepare your response and time to record your response. A tone will indicate when to begin speaking, and a clock on your screen will indicate how much time you have left. Begin speaking only when the voice on the recording directs you to respond; you will not be given credit for anything recorded during the preparation time. As you speak, your response will be recorded. Your score for these tasks will be based only on what is on the recording. It is important that you speak loudly enough and clearly enough into the microphone. Your speaking will be evaluated on the following: Overall comprehensibility to a native speaker of Spanish who is not accustomed to interacting with nonnative speakers Accuracy and appropriateness of the content Presentation of ideas in a related and logical manner Appropriateness of vocabulary Accuracy of grammar and pronunciation Fluency of delivery and cohesiveness (including use of varied sentence structure and transitional expressions where appropriate) Appropriateness for a given task and/or listener The extent to which each task is completed If you do not know specific vocabulary, try to express yourself as well as you can, using circumlocution if necessary. If you make a mistake and correct it soon afterward, it will not be considered a mistake. You may take notes only on the scratch paper that will be provided. These notes will not be used in evaluating your responses. The Praxis Study Companion 9 Step 1: Learn About Your Test Presentational Speaking: Integrated Skills You will be asked to complete a task related to the passage you have already read in the Writing section. You will have 30 seconds to read the directions and 1 minute to review the passage again. You will then hear a prompt describing a task related to this passage. Following the prompt you will have 2 minutes to prepare you
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