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SportBiomk Swimming MM10

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SportBiomk Swimming MM10
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  1 © Uwe Kersting, 20111 Biomechanics of Swimming Center for Sensory-Motor InteractionSports BiomechanicsUwe Kersting –MiniModule 10 -2011 © Uwe Kersting, 20112 Objectives ãApply sports biomechanics approach to swimmingãBe able to differentiate characteristics of different swimming stylesãReview fundamental concepts on fluid dynamics –buoyancy, lift vs. dragãLearn about dophin skin and swim suitsãCreate a comprehension how all works together  2 © Uwe Kersting, 20113 Contents 1.Introduction: four main swim styles2.What we can see: characterisation of the four styles3.Fluidynamics principles-drag -lift-about surfaces and adjacent materials4.Simple calculations5.Finetuning of swim style understanding (?)6.Summary © Uwe Kersting, 2011 Videos 4 swimming styles & .... 4  3 © Uwe Kersting, 2011 Factorial Model of Swimming Performance‘partial times model’ TIME total Starting time Turning time Stroking time Block timeFlight timeGlide time Glide distanceAverage glide speedHoriz speed at entryChanges in horiz speed in glideHorizontal impulses in glideMass of swimmerHorizontal impulse in takeoffMovement timeReaction timeVert Vel at TOHeight above waterVertical impulse in takeoff © Uwe Kersting, 2011 Starting time start depends on horizontal and vertical impulses produced on the blockspeed in air greater than speed in water: optimise time in the air. however, too much height in the start produces greater downward speed which must be stopped in the water  appears to slow the swimmer downgrab vssprint starts: grab is faster off the blocks, but sprint start  greater impulse (what is the objective of the start?)-beware of “first out of the blocks” syndrome-when to start stroking? When your glide speed drops to  your swimming speed maximum impulse in minimum time I = m * v  4 © Uwe Kersting, 2011 Factorial Model of Swimming, cont’d TIME total Starting time Turning time Stroking time Stroking distanceAverage stroking speedAverage stroke lengthAverage stroke frequencyTurning distanceStarting distanceRace distancePropulsive forcesResistive forcesPull timeRecovery timeWave dragSurface dragForm dragPropulsive drag forcesPropulsive lift forcesPropulsive forces (legs)Propulsive forces (arms) © Uwe Kersting, 2011 Stroke length Propulsive forces:lift forces –from sculling actionsdrag forces –from pull actionlegs contribute to propulsion in whip and dolphin kicks, but less so in flutter kickResistive forces:form drag –X-C area (viewed from the front)surface drag –typically small, reduced by flutter kick. Also by speed suitswave drag –caused by lifting water above surface level (minimise rolling and vertical motion of the body)
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