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Standardizing IP Traffic Flow Measurement at the IETF

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Standardizing IP Traffic Flow Measurement at the IETF Tanja Zseby (FhGFOKUS, Jürgen Quittek (NEC Europe Ltd., Outline FhG FOKUS Standardization of IP Traffic Flow
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Standardizing IP Traffic Flow Measurement at the IETF Tanja Zseby (FhGFOKUS, Jürgen Quittek (NEC Europe Ltd., Outline FhG FOKUS Standardization of IP Traffic Flow Measurements in the IETF and IRTF Real Time Traffic Flow Measurement (RTFM) IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Packet Sampling (PSAMP) IP Perfomance Metrics (IPPM) IRTF Internet Measurement Research Group (IMRG) Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA) and IRTF AAAARCH Related EU projects at FOKUS InterMon 6QM SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, FOKUS Measurement Activities Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems (FhG FOKUS), Berlin,Germany Measurement group at Competence Center for Global Networking (GLONE) Since : New Competence Center for Measurement Technologies and Network Research (METEOR) Measurement Activities Passive and active measurement components Control of distributed heterogeneous measurement platform Resource efficient measurements (e.g. sampling) Standardization IETF IPFIX (requirements, applicability) IETF PSAMP (sampling information model) IRTF AAAARCH (policy-based accounting RFC3334) IRTF IMRG (planed; measurement configuration) SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, RTFM Real Time Traffic Flow Measurement (RTFM) Former IETF working group Outcome: RFCs Measurement Architecture Meter NeTraMet Was continued as RTFM get-togethers Application Manager Reader Meter SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, RTFM Meter NeTraMet Very flexible and powerful meter Programmable rule sets Meter can serve several readers Manger can control multiple meters Reader polls meter Meter configuration via SNMPv2 (Meter MIB) which flows should be measured which attributes should be stored Realization by SNMP Meter MIB Free software implementation NeTraMet 4.3 Extensions: Support for DiffServ codepoint Support for IPv6 addresses RSVP Message Parser from CEFRIEL Passive RTT measurements based on packet pairs No acceptance at manufacturers Complicated to use (too powerful) SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX IETF IPFIX Working Group IP Flow Information export (IPFIX) BoF sessions 12/00 and 08/01 active since 10/01 Successor of RTFM (Real-Time Flow Measurement) working group Target (official): standardizing current practice Target (unofficial): standardizing (something like) Cisco NetFlow Chairs Nevil Brownlee, CAIDA David Plonka, University of Wisconsin SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX Scope and General Requirements Goal: Find or develop a basic common IP Traffic Flow measurement technology to be available on (almost) all future routers Fulfilling requirements of many applications Low hardware/software costs Simple and scalable Metering to be integrated in general purpose IP routers and other devices (probes, middleboxes) Data processing to be integrated into various applications Interoperability by openness or standardization SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX WG: Expected Output Planned documents Requirements RFC (almost completed) Architecture RFC (just starting!) Data model RFC (getting mature) Applicability RFC (initial ideas, some text) Protocol development? Protocol selection! Configuration of measurements will not be standardized SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX WG: Current Status Good support from IESG (Internet Engineering Steering Group) High interest from equipment manufacturers Cisco designed NetFlow v9 compliant to IPFIX requirements Cisco proposes to standardize NetFlow v9 NEC/Riverstone/Enterasys contributing much Juniper is closely monitoring progress Highly skilled design team approx. 15 people from Cisco, NEC, Riverstone, CAIDA, XACCT, More information at SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Target Applications (1) Usage-based accounting input to charging and billing various business model time-based, volume-based, QoS class-based per application, per user, per user group Traffic engineering optimizing network usage traffic analysis on congested links origin of traffic type of traffic dynamic behavior (bursty, adaptive, ) Traffic profiling SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, QoS monitoring Target Applications (2) (passive) measurement of QoS properties validating Service Level Agreements Attack detection and analysis detecting (high volume) traffic patterns investigation of origin of attacks Intrusion detection detecting unexpected or illegal packets SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX Architecture Overview Flow Information Export Application Exporting Process Metering process Flow Record Collecting Process Observation Point SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX Terminology: IP Traffic Flow Exporting Process Metering process Flow Record Collecting Process Application Observation Point All packets belonging to a particular flow have a set of common properties. An IP traffic flow is defined as a set of packets passing an observation point in the network during a certain time interval. SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX Terminology: Observation Point Exporting Process Metering process Flow Record Observation Point Collecting Process Application The observation point is a location in the network where IP packets can be observed. All measurements MUST be conducted from the point of view of the observation point. Examples are a line to which a probe is attached, a shared medium, such as an Ethernet-based LAN, a single port of a router, or a set of interfaces (physical or logical) of a router. SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX Terminology: Metering Process Exporting Process Metering process Flow Record Collecting Process Application Observation Point A set of actions performed on packets observed at an observation point in order to map them to a flow. includes timestamping, classifying, and may include sampling of packets. also maintenance of flow records, computation of flow statistics, and detection of flow expiration. SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IPFIX Terminology: Flow Record Exporting Process Metering process may contain characteristic properties of the flow (e.g. source IP address). Flow Record Observation Point Collecting Process Application A flow record contains information about a specific flow that was metered at an observation point. contains e.g. the total number of bytes of measured properties of the flow (all packets of the flow). SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Metering process The exporting process sends flow records to one or more collectors. IPFIX Terminology: Exporting & Collecting Process Exporting Process Flow Record Observation Point Collecting Process Application The collecting process receives flow records from one or more exporting processes. The collector might process or store received flow record, but these actions are out of the scope of the requirements document. SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Probe E M O Simple Router E M O O O IPFIX-related Devices Complex Router E M M O O O O O O Multiple Exporters E M O O O E M O O O Protocol Converter E (Meter MIB) M O E M EO M OE M O Concentrator C M E Proxy C E SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Protocol Evaluation Process Candidate protocols Need advocate person (no advocate, no evaluation) Evaluation document (with regard to IPFIX requirements) Evaluation team No members from companies proposing protocols Preparing guidelines for advocates Selecting and discussing individual evaluations with the advocates Producing a joint evaluation document covering all candidate protocols SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, IETF standards RTFM RMON, RMON2 Existing Technologies Proprietary technologies NetFlow (Cisco) sflow (InMon) LFAP (Riverstone) Crane (XACCT) DIAMETER SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Critical Outlook: Potential Problems Still Ahead Is IPFIX already too complicated? Flexible flow definition Reliability Congestion awareness Flexible data format Many people might not be satisfied with not using UDP Cisco expects NetFlow v9 to be come standard What if NetFlow v9 will not be the selected protocol? Of course - and always: Security issues SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, PSAMP IETF PSAMP Working Group Packet Sampling (PSAMP) BoF session in March 02, WG since July 02 Focus on sampling and capturing packets and on transferring them to data collectors Target applications Traffic profiling, monitoring network behavior Initiator: Nick Duffield, AT&T Closely Related to IPFIX Chairs Andy Bierman, Cisco Juergen Quittek, NEC Hot issues (partial) export of payload existing patents held by AT&T and HP SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, PSAMP Objectives Objectives (from charter) Define standard set of capabilities for NW elements for supporting packet sampling Domain-wide consistency of sampling schemes consistent interpretation Self-defining report format Configuration of packet selectors Work Plan (from charter) Specify packet sampling schemes Define report structure (which includes packet fields) Report stream: stream of reports of same type (format, sampling parameters,..) Configuration MIB (sampling parameters,etc.) Differences to IPFIX unclear Full packet capturing not in scope Definition of standard sampling and classification rules Use IPFIX as one option for transport draft-quittek-psamp-ipfix-00.txt Documents Framework: draft-ietf-psamp-framework-00.txt Sampling and Filtering Techniques: draft-ietf-psamp-sample-tech-00.txt SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Information Models Information Models for Packet selection methods What information needs to be provided to describe the method Basis for Configuration of methods Reporting of technique in use to collector SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Proposed Terminology Use IPFIX terms: Metering, Exporting and Collection Process Observation Point Flow Packet Selection Filtering Sampling Combinations Filtering Deterministic function on parts of the packet content (header, payload) can emulate a pseudo random selection needs to process the packet for selection decision Sampling Deterministic or random function on temporal or spatial packet position or By performing random calculations per packet may need packet position Packet Stream Input stream for selector Differs from IPFIX flow definition SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Relation to IPFIX (my view) Exporting Process PSAMP MIB IPFIX Metering Process Record Creation Packet Selection Timestamping Packet Selection Capturing Packet Selection Observation Point SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Sampling Random Sampling n-out-of-n Sample fraction n/n Probabilistic Parameters Sampling probability p Systematic Sampling (equally spaced) Time Based (temporal packet position) Interval length (in time) Spacing Position based (spatial packet position) Interval length (in packets) Spacing SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Parameters Filtering Matching Bitmask or interval For header, payload or both Hashing Considered bits Hash function and parameters Router State Router state/treatment that triggers selection Composite Schemes Combination of basis schemes Concatenated via STREAM_ID definition SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Open Issues Focus on few standard selection methods? Which? How many? Combined schemes Linked Or define as separate scheme Which aspects should be standardized? Schemes and Parameters Configuration format Reporting format Configuration Protocol? SNMP? Reporting protocol? IPFIX? SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Open Issues Categorization Specify what input is required for the selection process Filtering needs packet content Sampling may need packet position 3rd category for router state based filtering? Hashing Would be a form of filtering But: pseudo random sampling can be achieved with hashing Useful categorization? Other proposals? Needed at all? Relation to IPFIX Packet selection as part of the IPFIX metering process Associated IPFIX process Alternative reporting protocols? will there be identifiers for observation points and IPFIX processes? Specify location of packet selection component in metering process Document: draft-quittek-psamp-ipfix-00.txt SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Further Groups IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) Goal: Definition of Standard Metrics Connectivity (RFC 2678) One-way Delay (RFC 2679) One-way Packet Loss (RFC 2680) Round-trip Delay (RFC 2681) One-way Loss Pattern Sample Metrics (RFC 3357) IP Packet Delay Variation (RFC 3393) Current issues Packet Reordering Metric IPPM Reporting MIB One-way-active Measurement Protocol IP Measurement Protocol (IPMP) SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Internet Measurement Research Group (IMRG) New IRTF group Measurement infrastructures (e.g., Surveyor, NIMI) Scalability of meshes Security of measurement tools Access control, resource control, scheduling issues. Sharing measurement data within the community Systematic way for storing measurements Systems for remote sharing of measurement results Remote configuration of measurements, analysis, and anonymization New measurement techniques Forum for sharing preliminary findings Encourage further work and collaboration Developing models based on network measurements Understand network dynamics Aiding researchers Conduct useful simulations of the network. Foster communication between the research and operations communities Requirements from operators Core problems that need to be addressed wish list of outstanding problems SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, AAA Authentictaion Authorization and Accounting (AAA, AAAARCH) IETF group Focus on network access (e.g. mobile IP) Standardization of DIAMETER protocol Accounting RFCs: Introduction to Accounting Management (RFC 2975) Accounting Attributes and Record Formats (RFC 2924) AAAARCH IRTF group Generic Architecture for AAA Policy-based Accounting (RFC3334) SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Related EU Projects InterMon Advanced architecture for INTER- domain quality of service MONitoring, modelling and visualisation Target: Inter-domain QoS measurement + analysis + visualization Solution: Develop a scalable inter-domain QoS control architecture with integrated components for: topology discovery by analyzing routing advertisements measurement / monitoring of network traffic traffic modeling based on measurement data simulation of data traffic / network behavior data mining aggregation of collected information visualization with interactive data exploration Targeted customers: Internet service providers, QoS enabled end system developers, network operators Purpose: operative control, planning and optimisation, experiments with traffic QoS classes InterMon Workshop: February 20-21, 2003 Salzburg, Austria SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, 6QM - IPv6 Quality of Service Measurement Quality of Service Measurement Measurement Requirements for IPv6 networks Accounting SLA validation Development of Measurement components for IPv6 networks Passive and active measurements Measurement configuration IPFIX reporting Dissemination and Linkage with other related Foras and Projects, in order to publicize the project results. Deployment of measurement components in IPv6 research networks (6net, Euro6, etc.) SCAMPI Workshop Januar 27, Thank You
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