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Status of Organic Agriculture in Sri Lanka with Special Emphasis on Tea Production Systems

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Status of Organic Agriculture in Sri Lanka with Special Emphasis on Tea Production Systems- a PhD thesis
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    Status of organic agriculture in Sri Lanka with special emphasis on tea production systems ( Camellia sinensis  (L.) O. Kuntze) Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades „Doktor der Agrarwissenschaften“ am Fachbereich Pflanzenbau der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen PhD Thesis Faculty of Plant Production, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen vorgelegt von / submitted by Ute Williges OCTOBER 2004    Acknowledgement The author gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance received from the German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, DAAD) for the field work in Sri Lanka over a peroid of two years and the „Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsprogramm (HWP)“ for supporting the compilation of the thesis afterwards in Germany. My sincere thanks goes to my teacher Prof. Dr. J. Sauerborn whose continuous supervision and companionship accompanied me throughout this work and period of live. Further I want to thank Prof. Dr. Wegener and Prof. Dr. Leithold for their support regarding parts of the thesis and Dr. Hollenhorst for his advice carrying out the statistical analysis. My appreciation goes to Dr.  Nanadasena and Dr. Mohotti for their generous provision of laboratory facilities in Sri Lanka. My special thanks goes to Mr. Ekanayeke whose thoughts have given me a good insight view in tea cultivation. I want to mention that parts of the study were carried out in co-operation with the Non Governmental Organisation Gami Seva Sevana, Galaha, Bio Foods (Pvt) Ltd., Bowalawatta, the Tea Research Institute (TRI) of Sri Lanka, Talawakele; The Tea Small Holders Development Authority (TSHDA), Regional Extension Centre, Sooriyagoda; The Post Graduate Institute of Agriculture (PGIA), Department of Soil Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya and The  Natural Resources Management Services (NRMS), Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka, Polgolla. Representing the many people behind these institutions I like to name Mr. Ranjith de Silva, Dr. Sarath Ranaweera, Dr. Modder, Mr. Ashoka Someratne and Mr. Roger White. Apart from the research I want to express my deep appreciation for the hospitality and genuine friendliness my family experienced during our stay in Sri Lanka. Last but not least I want to thank my parents, in laws, husband and children for supporting me throughout this challenging period of life. II  Contents CONTENTS 1   Introduction...........................................................................................................................1   Part I Background........................................................................................................................4   2   Sri Lanka................................................................................................................................4  2.1 Location, population, climate, geography 4 2.2 Economic and social situation 6 2.3 Agriculture 8 2.3.1 Traditional cultivation systems in Sri Lanka...........................................................8 2.3.2 Chena cultivation (slash and burn)..........................................................................8 2.3.3 Forest Gardens.........................................................................................................9 2.3.4 Alternative practices..............................................................................................10 2.4 Land use pattern 10 2.5 Animal husbandry 11 2.6 Ecology 11  3   Tea.........................................................................................................................................14  3.1 Botany 14 3.2 Ecophysiological requirements 14 3.3 Propagation 14 3.4 Fertilisation 15 3.5 Pruning 15 3.6 Plucking 15 3.7 Plant protection 15 3.8 Processing 16 3.9 Tea growing in Sri Lanka 16 3.10 History of tea planting 17 3.11 Tea area changes 18  4   Organic Agriculture............................................................................................................20    Contents 4.1 World statistics of organic agriculture 20 4.2 Literature resources 21 4.3 Organic production in Sri Lanka 21 4.3.1 Development, history and recent situation............................................................21 4.3.2 Organic crops grown in Sri Lanka.........................................................................24 4.3.3 Certification...........................................................................................................26 4.3.4 Official recognition...............................................................................................26 Part II Tea production systems..................................................................................................28   5   From subsistence farming to market production: Present role and future potential of the smallholders organic tea cultivation system in the mid country of Sri Lanka................28  5.1 Introduction 28 5.2 Material and methods 30 5.2.1 Natural conditions of the research area Udapalatha..............................................30 5.2.2 Field study.............................................................................................................30 5.3 Smallholders organic tea cultivation in 1998 – survey results 34 5.3.1 Group details of organic tea smallholders.............................................................34 5.3.2 Plant production system........................................................................................37 5.3.3 Animal husbandry.................................................................................................39 5.3.4 Manuring...............................................................................................................39 5.3.5 Plant protection......................................................................................................40 5.3.6 Processing, marketing, infrastructure....................................................................40 5.3.7 Yield comparison...................................................................................................41 5.3.8 Economic position and productivity......................................................................42 5.4 Discussion 47 5.5 Conclusion 49  6   Production details of organic tea estates in Sri Lanka.....................................................50  6.1 Introduction 50 6.2 Plant production 50 6.3 Animal production 50 6.4 Manuring 51 6.4.1 Composting............................................................................................................51 6.4.2 Trench composting................................................................................................52 II
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