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STRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF KILITBAHIR CASTLE IN CANAKKALE, TURKEY

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  SAHC2014    –   9 th  International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions F. P eña   & M. Chávez  (eds.) Mexico City, Mexico, 14  –  17 October 2014 STRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF KILITBAHIR CASTLE IN CANAKKALE, TURKEY A. Turer 1   1  Middle East Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, Ankara, Turkey e-mail: aturer@metu.edu.tr Keywords:  Kilitbahir, castle, masonry, restoration, structural. Abstract.  Kilitbahir castle was constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1452  –   1463 at Euro- pean side of Canakkale city to control passage in the strait from the Aegean Sea to the Sea of  Mar-mara. The castle has a very interesting shape in the form of a clover leaf surrounding a tri-angle shaped central tower. Additional exterior rampart walls protect the castle from the land side. The castle is recently going through a restoration work, while the earlier major restoration works were carried out in 1541 and 1870. This paper consists of visual struc-tural evaluation of the castle and highlights on various structural issues to guide some of the resto-ration work. The castle suffers from material degradation on the masonry walls due to water leakage from the roof level. All of the floor beams holding the walls together were lost. Vari-ous cracks on the castle walls and surrounding rampart walls show indica-tions of structural deficiencies and possible damage due to temperature shifts or soil set-tlement. The conclu- sions of this paper try to set a path for structural interventions during restoration work which may also be suitable for similar castles.  First A. Author, Second B. Author and Third C. Author 2 1   INTRODUCTION 1.1   Brief history Kilitbahir castle was constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1452  –   1463 at European side of Canakkale city to control passage in the strait from the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara (Fig. 1). The castle has a very interesting shape in the form of a clover leaf surrounding a tri-angle shaped central tower (Fig. 2). Additional exterior rampart walls protect the castle from the land side. First restoration was made by Kanuni Sultan Suleyman’s order in 1541. Second restoration took place in 1870 by Sultan Abdulaziz and a reconstruction of the northern wall was ordered by II. Abdülhamit between 1893 -1894 [1, 2]. Current restoration work has been supported by a structural evaluation and visual evaluation of the castle summarized in this pa- per. Figure 1: Location and satellite image of Kilitbahir Castle (ref. Google). Figure 2: General view of the Kilitbahir Castle from the sea and air.  Title of the Paper 3 1.2   Current work carried out on the castle and objective of this paper The structural evaluation in this study includes a detailed visual inspection of the castle tower walls as well as the surrounding defense walls [3]. Degradation in material level and then structural member losses were documented. Possible sources of weakness were out-lined and restoration studies were steered in those directions. The major issues can be grouped un-der a) loss of wooden floor beams in the tower to tie opposing walls together, b) degradation in the double leaf walls at the lower parts of the castle, c) water seepage at the dome level to cause decay in the wooden wall lintels as well as weakening and loss of mortar layers, d) structural cracks forming at the surrounding exterior rampart walls, e) earthquake vulnerabil-ity and other issues. 2   MAJOR STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE REMEDIES 2.1   The castle tower One of the major problems with the tower is the loss of wooden floor beams which struc-turally used to form a platform in the past. The castle walls reach unsupported height of 25 meters above ground (Fig. 3) over a water cistern which is more than 3 meters deep. The out-of-plane bending stability of the walls is improved by the presence of such horizontal beams connecting opposing walls in alternating directions. Logs found in the tower that has srcinal nails on them also is an indication of thick wooden floor covering over beams which might in a way form diaphragm action as well. The floor should be reconstructed to structurally con-nect the opposing walls and at the same time for non-structural purpose of providing walking  platforms for visitors. Figure 3: Interior view of the Kilitbahir Castle tower (looking up) and damaged floor beams. Almost all of the openings in the walls, which includes tunnels and window openings, have structural cracks clearly visible on the upper parts (Fig. 4). The cracks on the floor are possi- bly covered and filled with dust and earth. Similar cracks were also traced from the outside.  First A. Author, Second B. Author and Third C. Author 4 The crack formation on the walls indicate that the 3m to 4m thick tower walls have suffered dismantling by forming vertical cracks in planes that have horizontal normal vectors perpen-dicular and parallel to the wall surface. Majority of the wooden members horizontally placed inside the walls during the construction in parallel and perpendicular to the wall surface were lost over time due to dampness and possible biological activity (Fig. 5). The loss of wooden members, which are responsible for holding the wall’s building blocks together in horizo ntal  planes (parallel and out-of-plane directions), caused walls to crack possibly during a past moderate seismic activity. Figure 4: General view of the structural cracks on the tower wall sections. Figure 5: One of the remaining wooden wall members.
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