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Surface Layer Alterations in Aisi 4140 Steel From Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Proces

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Surface Layer Alterations in Aisi 4140 Steel From Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Proces
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  Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   245 SURFACE LAYER ALTERATIONS IN AISI 4140 STEEL FROM TURN-ASSISTED DEEP COLD ROLLING PROCESS P. R. Prabhu* 1 , S. M. Kulkarni 2 , S. S. Sharma 3 , Jagannath K 4   1 Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT Manipal, India 2 Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NITK Surathkal, India 3, 4 Professor, Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, MIT Manipal, India ABSTRACT Mechanical surface enhancement (MSE) techniques have been used to modify the surface reliability properties of many materials by generating ultrafine or even nanometer-sized grains in the surface and subsurface region. These fine grained materials created by mechanical surface enhancement techniques usually have higher hardness and frequently exhibit enhanced mechanical properties. Turn-assisted deep cold rolling (TADCR) process is used to improve the surface integrity of AISI 4140 steel which is commonly used in automobile industry. Turn-assisted deep cold rolling is particularly attractive since it is possible to generate, near the surface, deep residual compressive stresses and work hardened layers while retaining a relatively smooth surface finish. Microstructure alteration to a depth of around 300µm was obtained from turn-assisted deep cold rolling process, which reflects an increase in residual compressive stress from as-turned material. Microhardness measurements indicate that the hardness in the small grained layer created by turn-assisted deep cold rolling is increased by about 36% related to the bulk value. Current results show that turn-assisted deep cold rolling could be an effective processing method to modify the surface integrity of AISI 4140 steel. Keywords: Surface Integrity, Microstructure, Deep Cold Rolling, AISI 4140 Steel, Microhardness . 1. INTRODUCTION It seems that it is the outer layer, lesser in volume relative to the core, which regulates major functional properties such as: friction, grindability, corrosiveness, fatigue life, load capacity. Improper physical and stereometrical properties of the outer layer cause failure damage in approximately 85% of the modern machine units [1]. Latest research results indicate that the life and the reliability of machine components or parts are affected greatly by the technological manufacturing and varieties of surface enhancement technologies applied, and also by the sequence and conditions of their application. Deep cold rolling process is an attractive mechanical surface enhancement technique which improves the surface characteristics by plastic deformation of the surface layer. The enhancement of surface characteristics mainly serves in terms of improved fatigue behaviour of work-pieces under dynamic load. Besides producing a good surface finish, it has additional advantages such as increased hardness and corrosion resistance. In addition, this process transforms tensile residual stresses, present in the surface zone after turning, into compressive residual stresses [2-4]. Residual stresses are probably the most important aspect in assessing integrity because of their direct influence on performance in service, compressive residual stresses generally improve component performance and life and inhibit crack nucleation and propagation. These advantages of deep cold rolling and, further, the efficiency, the simple construction of tooling, the economy, and the possibilities of using typical machine tools in the process and parts of   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2014), pp. 245-250 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/IJMET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com   IJMET   © I A E M E    Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   246 various types made of various materials, make the deep cold rolling process more attractive in comparison with other mechanical surface enhancement techniques. The literature review shows that earlier investigations on deep cold rolling process are dealing primarily with microstructure, residual stress and fatigue life of specific materials like aluminium and titanium alloys. Many researchers have studied experimentally this process with regard to the effect of ball diameter, rolling force, feed and lubricant [5-7]. In these studies, unique and specialized deep cold rolling set-ups are used and the analysis of resulting surface roughness and surface hardness are less focused upon. A. Tolga Bozdana et al. [7] developed a new mechanical surface enhancement technique utilizing ultrasonic vibrations. They discussed surface roughness, surface micro hardness and compressive residual stresses obtained after treatments of Ti-6Al-4V specimens. P. Juijerm et al. [8] performed the experiment to study the effects of deep rolling on the fatigue characteristics of AA5083 in the temperature range of 20-300 0 C. Residual stresses and work hardening effects near the surface of the deep rolled condition before and after fatigue tests were investigated by X-ray diffraction methods. P. Juijerm and I. Altenberger [9] studied the effect of high temperature deep rolling on cyclic deformation behaviour of solution heat treated Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy. Near surface properties like compressive residual stresses, work hardening and hardness were presented in this paper. N. Tsuji et al. [10] investigated the effect of deep rolling on fatigue strength and wear resistance of plasma carburized Ti-6Al-4V specimens. They reported that the fatigue properties and wear resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy modified by a combination of low temperature plasma carburizing and deep rolling were significantly improved in comparison with those of the unmodified Ti-6Al-4V alloy. C. M. Gill et al. [11] measured the shakedown of the compressive residual stresses produced by deep cold rolling caused by low cycle fatigue of the titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and IMI679 at room temperature and elevated temperature. G. H. Magzoobi [12] studied the effects of deep rolling and shot peening on fretting fatigue resistance of Aluminium 7075-T6. The results showed that fretting fatigue reduced the normal fatigue life. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of deep cold rolling process on the surface integrity changes (roughness, hardness, microstructure and residual compressive stress) of AISI 4140 steel. A further aim of this study is to establish relationships among deep cold rolling conditions and surface integrity properties of this AISI 4140 steel. 2. EXPERIMENTAL WORK 2.1 WORK MATERIAL The material used in the present investigation was AISI 4140 steel in the form of round bars with 12mm diameter as shown in Fig. 1 (ASTM standard E466). The chemical composition of AISI 4140 steel in mass% is as follows: 0.40C, 0.27Si, 0.66Mn, 0.055P, 0.046S, 1.20Cr, 0.25Mo, 0.16Ni. This steel is especially recommended for the manufacture of transmission shaft, gear shaft, crank shaft and also for a wide variety of automotive type applications [13]. The hardness of as-received material is measured to be 225HV in average. Fig. 1:  Workpiece geometry (mm) 2.2 TURN-ASSISTED DEEP COLD ROLLING PROCESS Turn-assisted deep cold rolling experiments were conducted on a conventional lathe. The specially designed and fabricated deep cold rolling tool and experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 respectively. The generated forces were collected by a KISTLER 4-component tool dynamometer. The forces acting only in Y direction were taken into consideration as these forces are causing the plastic deformation. The process parameters for deep cold rolling process are shown in Table 1.  Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   247 1 – Ball, 2 – Hardened pin, 3 – Collet, 4 – Locking nut, 5 – Shank , 6 – Bearing Fig. 2:  Deep cold rolling tool Fig. 3:  Experimental set-up of TADCR process Table 1:  Process parameters for turn-assisted deep cold rolling process   Parameter Turn-assisted deep cold rolling Ball material Tungsten carbide Ball diameter (mm) 6 8 10 Rolling force (N) 250 500 750 Initial roughness of the workpiece (µm) 4.84 6.15 7.46 Lubricant oil Brake oil Feed (mm/min) 36 Number of tool passes 1 2 3 2.3 MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION Measurements of the materials’ roughness, microhardness and microstructure in the surface region were conducted before and after the processing. Microhardness measurements of the AISI 4140 specimens were made by using a Vickers indentor on a MATZUAWA Micro Vickers hardness tester with 4.905N applied load. Microstructure analysis was conducted by using an optical microscope. Surface roughness measurements were made by using a Surtronic Taylor Hobson Talysurf roughness tester and residual stress measurements were made by using a Rigaku X-ray diffractometer. At least five readings of surface roughness and surface micro-hardness were taken of each specimen in order to hinder inaccurate results.  Proceedings of the 2 nd  International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 17 – 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India   248 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 SURFACE ROUGHNESS Surface roughness measurements were made before and after mechanical surface treatment and are shown in Table 2. Turn-assisted deep cold rolling result in significant alteration of the surface topography, led to a marked decrease (by more than 95%) in the measured surface roughness. Specifically, compared with a surface roughness of 4.84µm in the turned sample, the surface roughness of the turn-assisted deep cold rolled sample was 0.242µm. Such smoother surfaces associated with turn-assisted deep cold rolling can lead to significant improvements in resistance to fatigue crack initiation and hence contribute to the beneficial effect that this surface treatment can have in prolonging fatigue lifetimes. Table 2:  Surface roughness of as-turned and turn-assisted deep cold rolled samples   Sample Average surface roughness (µm) As turned 4.84 DCR at 250N force 0.69 DCR at 500N force 0.486 DCR at 750N force 0.242 3.2 MICROHARDNESS Hardness profiles, taken perpendicular to the surface of the as-turned and turn-assisted deep cold rolled microstructures, revealed the existence of a work hardened layer in the surface treated samples. Table 3 shows the micro-hardness values measured on as-turned and turn-assisted deep cold rolled surfaces. The subsurface microhardness obtained at different depths of the sample is plotted in Figure 4. The nature of plot obtained for both 250 N and 750 N force are similar with higher hardness at the surface and progressively decreases due to the differential amount of cold work experienced by the material. The average microhardness of the as turned specimen on the surface is about 225 HV. Highest hardness of about 306 HV is recorded on surface for TADCR with a force of 750 N and the hardness is found to decrease with depth from the surface and eventually settle at hardness of turned sample at a depth of about 300 µ m. From the same figure it could be observed that, surface microhardness settles at depth of 175 µm and 100 µm for TADCR with 500 N and 250 N force respectively. Based on the well-known Hall-Petch relationship between yield stress and grain size as well as the close interrelations among hardness, yield stress and residual stresses, high hardness values often indicate fine grain size and large residual stresses. It is reasonable to state that the variations in microhardness were likely due to the different residual stresses being generated during processing. Table 3:  Surface micro-hardness of as-turned and turn-assisted deep cold rolled samples   Sample Average surface micro-hardness (HV) As turned 225 DCR at 250N force 241 DCR at 500N force 270 DCR at 750N force 305 050100150200250300350400220230240250260270280290300310    M   i  c  r  o   h  a  r   d  n  e  s  s   (   H   V   ) Depth from surface ( µ m) Turned TADCR 250N TADCR 750N   Fig. 4:  Depth profiles of Vickers hardness for untreated and deep cold rolled samples

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