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Television and Divorce- Evidence from Brazilian Novelas.pdf

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Inter-American Development Bank Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) Research Department Departamento de Investigación Working Paper #651 BR-N1020 Television and Divorce: Evidence from Brazilian Novelas by Alberto Chong* Eliana La Ferrara** *Inter-American Development Bank **Università Bocconi and Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research January 2009 2 Cataloging-in-Publication data provided by the Inter-Amer
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    Inter-American Development Bank Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) Research Department Departamento de Investigación Working Paper #651 BR-N1020    Television and Divorce: Evidence from Brazilian ovelas   by Alberto Chong* Eliana La Ferrara** Inter-American Development Bank Università Bocconi and Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research January 2009   2 Cataloging-in-Publication data provided by the Inter-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library  Chong, Alberto. Television and divorce : evidence from Brazilian novelas / Alberto Chong, Eliana La Ferrara.  p. cm. (Research Department Working Papers ; 651) Includes bibliographical references. 1. Television and women—Brazil. 2. Divorce—Decision making. 3. Television soap operas— Brazil. 4. Television—Psychological aspects. I. La Ferrara, Eliana. II. Inter-American Development Bank. Research Dept. III. Title. IV. Series. HQ1233 .C285 2008 305.42 C285----dc22 Inter-American Development Bank 1300 New York Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20577 The views and interpretations in this document are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the Inter-American Development Bank, or to any individual acting on its behalf. This paper may be freely reproduced. The Research Department (RES) produces a quarterly newsletter, IDEA (Ideas for Development in the Americas), as well as working papers and books on diverse economic issues. To obtain a complete list of RES publications, and read or download them please visit our web site at: http://www.iadb.org/res.   3 Abstract *   This paper studies the link between television and divorce in Brazil by exploiting variation in the timing of availability of the signal of Rede Globo—the network that had a virtual monopoly on telenovelas  in the country—across municipal areas. Using three rounds of Census data (1970, 1980 and 1991) and controlling for area fixed effects and for time-varying characteristics, the paper finds that the share of women who are separated or divorced increases significantly after the Globo signal becomes available. The effect is robust to controlling for potential determinants of Globo’s entry strategy and is stronger for relatively smaller areas, where the signal reaches a higher fraction of the population. JEL Classification Codes:  O1, J12, N36 Key words:  Divorce, Television, Brazil, Soap Operas, Media, Women, Empowerment *  Correspondence: albertoch@iadb.org; eliana.laferrara@unibocconi.it. We thank Fabio Canova, Jakob Svensson and an anonymous referee for useful comments. Silvia Redaelli and Vanessa Ríos provided excellent research assistance.   4 1.   Introduction While policymakers have long believed that television can influence preferences and opinions in the population, until recently there has been very little evidence on the actual role of television, its possible impact channels, the role of content, and the permanence of its effects, among other issues. In developing countries, the role of television is of particular relevance as it is a medium for reaching large sectors of the population at relatively low cost. This paper addresses the link between television and one particular dimension of family relations: divorce, a salient topic from the point of view of development. In fact, it has been observed that the possibility of divorce gives women leverage to achieve greater gender equality within marriage, e.g., in the distribution of work (Yodanis, 2005). Unilateral divorce laws have also been shown to decrease domestic violence, spousal homicide and suicide (Stevenson and Wolfers, 2006). At the same time, divorce may have long-term adverse effects on children (Gruber, 2004). Our analysis focuses on Brazil, which is an interesting case study because divorce rates have increased rather dramatically in the last three decades, in spite of the stigma traditionally associated with divorce. It is estimated that divorce rates in Brazil increased from 3.30 per 100 marriages in 1984 to 17.7 in 2002 (United Nations, 2007), a steeper trend than in comparable Latin American countries. While many social and political factors underlie these profound changes, in this paper we advance the hypothesis that the spread of television and the type of values and lifestyles  portrayed on TV may have contributed to the increase in divorce rates. This makes Brazil an ideal case study for a second reason. Soap operas (or novelas , as they are called in Brazil) are by far the most popular TV programs, and they are broadcast by a network that has maintained a virtual monopoly of the sector for almost three decades, Rede Globo. As we discuss below, the images broadcast in Rede Globo’s novelas  typically include themes related with criticism of traditional values and the circulation of modern ideas such as female empowerment and emancipation, both in the work sphere and in private life. Separation and divorce are a natural reflection of these attitudes (Rios-Neto, 2001; Fadul, 1999). We use Census data for the period 1970-1991 and exploit differences in the timing of entry of Rede Globo into different municipalities. We find that, after controlling for time and area fixed effects, as well as for time varying characteristics, areas that receive the Globo signal
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