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The Indonesian 1945 Constitution

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UUD 1945
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  INDONESIAN PEOPLE AND SOCIETYTHE 1945 CONSTITUTIONWritten by:GROUP 3!i Hi#!$!ti14%&54&'4&Deni(! Ari!ni14%&54&'33)itri!*!n!Gi!nn! L!rent! 14%&54&''1Gi+!n, N-.!nt!r! 11%&%'445&/0*!ne. R!y#0n H 11%5%'45&32-*!##! Arb!ni14%&54&'&5  THE 1945 CONSTITUTION A0rin, t0 t*e 00r iti0n!ry6 t*e einiti0n 0 ! 0n.tit-ti0n i. 7A b0y0 -n!#ent!+ 8rini8+e. 0r e.t!b+i.*e 8reeent. !0rin, t0 $*i* ! .t!te 0r 0t*er 0r,!ni(!ti0n i. !n0$+e,e t0 be ,0erne;6 !n .0 ! 0n.tit-ti0n i. ! b!.i+!$ $*i* ,-ie. t*e !#ini.tr!ti0n 0 ! 0-ntry< A 0n.tit-ti0n *!. #!ny ierent -nti0n.6 0ne 0 t*e# i. t0 8r0ie 0r t*e,0ern#ent!+ 80$er.6 t*e +e,!+ .y.te#6 !n t*e ri,*t. 0 iti(en. in t*e n!ti0n< S0#e0 t*e 0t*er -nti0n. 0 ! .t!te !re !. 0++0$e:1<T*e C0n.tit-ti0n .ere. !. ! n!ti0n!+ 0-#ent 0nt!inin, !,ree#ent. 0n 80+iti!+6 +e,!+6 e-!ti0n!+6 -+t-r!+6 !n e0n0#i -n!#ent!+ !.8et. !n 8-r80.e. 0 ! 0-ntry<=<A. ! in 0 birt* ertii!te 0 ! ne$ .t!te<3<A. t*e .-8re#e .0-re 0 +!$<4<A. ! .y#b0+ 0 -nity !n n!ti0n!+ ientity<5<A. ! #e!n. 0 +i#itin, ,0ern#ent!+ 80$er<&<A. ! 8r0tet0r 0 *-#!n ri,*t. !n t*e iti(en. ree0#<T*ere !re t$0 ty8e. 0 0n.tit-ti0n6 $ritten 0n.tit-ti0n !n -n$ritten0n.tit-ti0n< A. t*eir n!#e. .t!te6 ! 0n.tit-ti0n !n be eit*er $ritten 0r -n$ritten< A $ritten 0n.tit-ti0n i. ! 0r#!+ 0-#ent einin, t*e n!t-re 0 t*e0n.tit-ti0n!+ .ett+e#ent6 t*e r-+e. t*!t ,0ern t*e 80+iti!+ .y.te#6 !n t*e ri,*t. 0 iti(en. !n ,0ern#ent. in ! 0iie 0r#< An e!#8+e 0 ! $ritten 0n.tit-ti0n i.In0ne.i!>. 0n.tit-ti0n6 $*i* i. t*e 1945 C0n.tit-ti0n<An -n$ritten 0n.tit-ti0n i. 0ne in $*i* #0.t 0 t*e 8rini8+e. 0 t*e,0ern#ent *!e neer been en!te in t*e 0r# 0 +!$.< It 0n.i.t. 0 -.t0#.60nenti0n.6 tr!iti0n.6 !n .0#e $ritten +!$. be!rin, ierent !te.< It i.  -n.y.te#!ti6 ineinite6 !n -n?8rei.e< S-* ! 0n.tit-ti0n i. n0t t*e re.-+t 0 0n.i0-. !n e+iber!te e0rt. 0 t*e 8e08+e< One 0 t*e e!#8+e. 0 !n -n$ritten0n.tit-ti0n i. t*e Unite @in,0#>. 0n.tit-ti0n< Un+ie #!ny 0t*er n!ti0n.6 t*e U@ *!. n0 .in,+e 0n.tit-ti0n!+ 0-#ent<In0ne.i!>. 1945 0n.tit-ti0n i. ! $ritten 0n.tit-ti0n< It $!. ir.t en!te !. !!+i In0ne.i!n .t!te 0n.tit-ti0n !t t*e PP@I tri!+ 0n A-,-.t 1 19456 t*e !y !ter In0ne.i!n ine8enene< A+t*0-,* t*e 0n.tit-ti0n *!. been 0ii!++y en!te6 b-t it$!. n0t iret+y -.e !. ! reerene in eery ,0ern#ent!+ ei.i0n?#!in,< T*e1945 0n.tit-ti0n $!. e..enti!++y re!++y 0n+y -.e !. ! t00+ in 0rer t0 i##ei!te+ye.t!b+i.* !n ine8enent .t!te6 n!#e+y t*e Re8-b+i 0 In0ne.i!< It $!. intene !. !te#80r!ry 0n.tit-ti0n t*!t *! t0 be re8+!e $it* ! ne$ 0ne $*en t*e .t!te be!#ee.t!b+i.*e !n ine8enent6 !n $*en t*e ir-#.t!ne. $0-+ !++0$ it<Sine t*e A-,-.t 1 1945 -nti+ n0$6 In0ne.i! *!. -.e t*ree ierent0n.tit-ti0n.6 n!#e+y t*e 1945 C0n.tit-ti0n6 t*e 1949 C0n.tit-ti0n 0 RIS BRe8-b+i In0ne.i! Seri!t !n t*e Pr0i.i0n!+ C0n.tit-ti0n 0 195%< ie$e r0# it. 8eri00 en!t#ent6 t*e !88+i!ti0n 0 t*e t*ree 0n.tit-ti0n. !n be br0en 0$n int0 0-r  8eri0.6 n!#e+y:1<A-,-.t 16 1945 ? Dee#ber ='6 19496 t*e 1945 C0n.tit-ti0n i. !88+ie<=<Dee#ber ='6 1949 ? A-,-.t 1'6 195%6 t*e 1949 C0n.tit-ti0n 0 RIS i.!88+ie<3<A-,-.t 1'6 195% ? /-+y 56 19596 t*e Pr0i.i0n!+ C0n.tit-ti0n 0 195% i.!88+ie<4</-+y 56 1959 ? Ot0ber 196 19996 t*e 1945 C0n.tit-ti0n i. 0ne !,!in !88+ie6*0$eer6 .eer!+ *!n,e. t0 t*e 0n.tit-ti0n $ere #!e<T*e 1945 C0n.tit-ti0n *!. e8eriene ! e$ *!n,e. -nti+ n0$< One 0 t*ee#!n. 0 t*e 199 Re0r# $!. t0 #!e *!n,e. B!#en#ent. t0 t*e 1945C0n.tit-ti0n< T*e b!,r0-n. 0 t*0.e e#!n. !#0n,.t 0t*er. $ere be!-.e .ine  .ine t*e Ne$ Orer er!6 t*e .-8re#e 80$er $!. in t*e *!n. 0 t*e A..e#b+y B!nn0t in t*e *!n. 0 t*e 8e08+e6 t*e Pre.ient *! t00 #-* 80$er6 !n be!-.e 0 t*eei.tene 0 .0#e +!$. t*!t $ere t00 +eib+e B$*i* 0-+ *!e !-.e #-+ti8+einter8ret!ti0n.< T*e 8-r80.e 0 #!in, *!n,e. t0 t*e 1945 C0n.tit-ti0n $!. t0en*!ne b!.i r-+e. .-* !. t*e 0rer 0 t*e .t!te6 .0erei,nty 0 t*e 8e08+e6 *-#!nri,*t.6 ii.i0n 0 80$er.6 t*e ei.tene 0 e#0r!y !n r-+e 0 +!$6 !n 0t*er #!tter. in !0r!ne $it* t*e !.8ir!ti0n. !n nee. 0 t*e n!ti0n>. ee+08#ent<C*!n,e. t0 t*e 0n.tit-ti0n $ere #!e $it* t*e 0niti0n 0 n0t *!n,in, t*ePre!#b+e6 ret!inin, t*e .t!te .tr-t-re 0 -nity 0r +!ter better n0$n !. t*e Re8-b+i0 In0ne.i!6 !. $e++ !. rein0rin, t*e 8re.ienti!+ .y.te# 0 ,0ern!ne<In t*e ti#e 8eri0 0 1999?=%%=6 t*e 1945 C0n.tit-ti0n e8eriene 4 *!n,e.B!#en#ent. $*i* $ere .ti8-+!te -rin, t*e Gener!+ A..e#b+y !n 2PR Ann-!+Tri!+:1<Gener!+ Se..i0n6 19996 14?=1 Ot0ber 1999 F )ir.t A#en#ent 0 t*e 19450n.tit-ti0n=<=%%% 2PR Ann-!+ Se..i0n6 '?1 A-,-.t =%%% F Se0n A#en#ent 0 t*e1945 0n.tit-ti0n3<=%%1 2PR Ann-!+ Se..i0n6 1?9 N0e#ber =%%1 F T*ir A#en#ent 0 t*e1945 0n.tit-ti0n4<=%%= 2PR Ann-!+ Se..i0n6 1?11 A-,-.t =%%= F 1945 )0-rt* A#en#entT*e.e 0-r !#en#ent. in+-e ery ee8 !n br0! !.8et. !. $e++ !.!#en. ! n-#ber 0 *!8ter. $*i* t*eir .-b.t!ne. !re .-bet t0 ! e$ *!n,e. 0r .-88+e#ent!ti0n.< e0re t*e !#en#ent.6 t*e 1945 0n.tit-ti0n $!. 0n+y #!e -80 1& *!8ter.6 3' !rti+e. !n 4' 8!r!,r!8*. 8+-. 4 8!r!,r!8* 0 t*e Tr!n.iti0n!+Pr0i.i0n. !n S-88+e#ent!ry R-+e.< Ater bein, !#ene 0-r ti#e.6 t*e 19450n.tit-ti0n 0n.i.te 0 =% *!8ter.6 '3 *!8ter.6 8+-. 8!r!,r!8* 3 0 Arti+e 1'1 0 t*e Tr!n.iti0n!+ Pr0i.i0n. !n S-88+e#ent!ry R-+e. = !rti+e< T*e .-b.t!ne 0 t*e!#en#ent. *!n,e t*e #0.t b!.i t*in,. 0n t*e 80+iti!+ .y.te#!n 0n.tit-ti0n!+
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