The Silk Roads: an ICOMOS Thematic Study. by Tim Williams on behalf of ICOMOS PDF

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The Silk Roads: an ICOMOS Thematic Study by Tim Williams on behalf of ICOMOS 2014 The Silk Roads An ICOMOS Thematic Study by Tim Williams on behalf of ICOMOS 2014 International Council of Monuments and
The Silk Roads: an ICOMOS Thematic Study by Tim Williams on behalf of ICOMOS 2014 The Silk Roads An ICOMOS Thematic Study by Tim Williams on behalf of ICOMOS 2014 International Council of Monuments and Sites 11 rue du Séminaire de Conflans Charenton-le-Pont FRANCE ISBN ICOMOS All rights reserved Contents STATES PARTIES COVERED BY THIS STUDY... X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... XI 1 CONTEXT FOR THIS THEMATIC STUDY The purpose of the study Background to this study Global Strategy Cultural routes Serial transnational World Heritage nominations of the Silk Roads Ittingen expert meeting THE SILK ROADS: BACKGROUND, DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE The Silk Roads Silk Roads misconceptions: neither silk nor roads The nature of exchange: high, medium and low value goods Geographical scope Chronological scope Geography, climate & vegetation Ecological zones Topography Hydrology ISSUES Scale of the overall study Scale of existing mapping Sites included - and omitted The quality of information on sites and their dating Site locations Place names: ancient & modern PREPARATION OF A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM Introduction Data sources Published works on the Silk Roads Historical accounts State Party Tentative Lists Published map data Digital data sources Climate data Ecological and hydrographic data Topographic & physical geography CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO MAPPING: NODES, ROUTE SEGMENTS & CORRIDORS Mapping the routes Definitions: nodes, route segments & corridors Node Segment Corridor Adapting the corridor buffer Conclusions Digitising routes ANALYSIS Page iv 6.1 Routes & corridors WHS and TL distribution Existing WHS Tentative list sites Silk Roads site categories Definitions Number of sites and their distribution Category 1 Infrastructure Category 2 Production Category 3 Outcomes Conclusions: Silk Roads Categories Empire systems Nomads Buried archaeological sites THE WAY FORWARD A single property? Nomination strategy Introduction Themes, individual sites or corridors? Selecting specific corridors Site selection within chosen corridors Compilation of nomination dossiers & an overall Silk Roads framework Harmonizing and developing Tentative Lists Additional recommendations Further research Documentation and national inventories Capacity building Developing the role of expert groups Digital data dissemination International funding and support mobilized by UNESCO ANNEXES DRAFT CONCEPT STATEMENT FOR THE SILK ROADS TENTATIVE LIST SITES FROM THE STUDY AREA SELECTED CORRIDORS Introduction Selected corridors DATABASE & GIS Introduction Silk Roads Database The Sites table Other tables Silk Roads GIS Introduction Data drawn from the database or directly digitised Scanned and digitised data Digital archaeological & historical data Physical data: ArcGIS Online Physical & environmental data: downloadable Software BIBLIOGRAPHIC SURVEY Page v REFERENCES CITED Page vi List of figures Figure 1. The vast geographical extent of the terrestrial Silk Roads, showing major routes (in red) and other significant routes (orange) Figure 2. The broad study area (in green), covering some 25 million km Figure 3. The study area (green) with major (red) and other significant (orange) routes Figure 4. Chang an (China) to Antioch (Turkey): 6,478 km as the crow flies (Google Earth image Landsat Orion-ME 2014 Google 2014 [accessed April 2014]) Figure 5. Chang an in China to Antioch in Turkey, by perhaps the most direct route taking into account geographic obstacles: closer to 7,250 km (Google Earth image Landsat Orion-ME 2014 Google 2014 [accessed April 2014]) Figure 6. The diversity of ecological and topographic zones that the Silk Roads passed through Figure 8. The major desert areas along the Silk Roads. Even here, there is a complexity of desert forms, from the high plateau deserts surrounded by chains of high mountains, such as the Gobi, the Djungarian, and the Taklamakan, as opposed to the lowland dunal deserts such as the Karakum Figure 9. A portion of Central Asian routes against a backdrop of the AS cropland data Figure 10. Selecting nodes and segments. The principal sites between Khotan (left) and Lop Nor/Loulan (right). The green lines are the segments identified in the OWTRAD dataset, and simply link nodes with straight lines. In red, a more complex picture, with more settlements and a route digitised to reflect local topography (rivers, oases, etc) (from the Historical Atlas of Eurasia) Figure 11. Adjusting the boundary of specific corridors. In (a) all the principal sites lie within a corridor defined by a generic buffer 30 km to either side of the main segment defined between two nodes (yellow). In (b) some sites (in red) lie outside the corridor. In (c) the buffer is redrawn to take into account the local topography/ecology which constricts the landscape available in some places, and broadens it out in others Figure 12. Distribution of current Tentative List sites (yellow triangles) across the study area Figure 13. Stopping places as mapped from the OWTRAD data, showing something of the scale of the sites in the central area of the Silk Roads Figure 14. Distribution of caravanserai (orange circles: based on OWTRAD data) in Syria, with the concentration of known sites between Damascus and Palmyra, and the paucity of sites in the eastern Syrian desert Figure 15. Major linear water systems (in blue) and some of the major drainage systems (in green, such as the Tigris/Euphrates and the Ob), against the Silk Roads (red and orange) Figure 16. Qanāts crossing a now desertified landscape in Central Asia (Google Earth) Figure 17. A sample of the Buddhist monasteries from the OWTRAD data sets, displayed in Google Earth. See Annex for details Figure 18. The wide fertile river system of the Ganges enabled sites to develop over a broad area and there were multiple routes across this landscape. At present two corridors have been defined, encompassing the main urban developments and monuments, but a single wider corridor probably would be more appropriate Figure 19. Mountain passes and steep-sided valleys would require a spatially much tighter definition of the corridor, which might, in places, only extend a few hundred metres from a very discreet route. Here the Karakoram highway (corridor 14) and through the high Karakoram (corridor 43) have been deliberately left un-buffered at this stage Figure 20. Some selected corridors (or parts of corridors) highlighted in purple (details in next figures) Figure 21. Sample corridors in the west Figure 22. Sample corridors in the central area Figure 23. Sample corridors in the east Figure 24. Example of sites in the database shown on the GIS. Key: Green = Existing World Heritage Sites; Yellow = Tentative List Sites; White = Other sites of interest Page vii Figure 25. Example of digitised routes. Red = main routes; yellow = more minor routes Figure 26. Example of corridors: main routes buffered (red hatching extending 30 km either side of the route) Figure 27. A geo-rectified scan of The archaeological map of Iraq, overlain with digitised site locations Figure 28. Geo-rectified scan of map from Siroux Figure 29. Example of Siroux digitised caravanserai locations (named) and routes Figure 30. The multiplicity of information available in the Google Earth version of the Historical Atlas of Eurasia Figure 31. Example of the Historical Atlas of Eurasia Silk Roads routes as a GIS shapefile Figure 32. Example of the Historical Atlas of Eurasia Eurasian Empires as a GIS shapefile: any of the individual empires can be turned on or off Figure 33. Coverage of Innermost Asia maps (from the Digital Silk Roads project) in Google Earth. 113 Figure 34. Detail of Innermost Asia maps (from the Digital Silk Roads project) in Google Earth Figure 35. Coverage of Serinda maps (from the Digital Silk Roads project) in Google Earth Figure 36. Detail of Serinda maps (from the Digital Silk Roads project) in Google Earth Figure 37. Example of OWTRAD nodes connected by straight lines in this case from Whitfield Figure 38. Example of OWTRAD monastic data in Google Earth. Legend - White circles: Clusters and groups of monasteries; Yellow: Theravada monasteries; Green: Sammitiya, Sarvastivada & Mahasanghika monasteries; Red: Mahayana monasteries; Magenta: Vajrayana monasteries; Blue: Indeterminate Buddhist tradition Figure 39. Example of OWTRAD wiki monastic entry Figure 40. Example of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Google Earth with direct link to UNESCO World Heritage Centre information Figure 41. Example of Warwick Ball s (1982) gazetteer of sites in Afghanistan, as seen in ArcGIS Figure 42. World Physical Map Figure 43. World_Reference-Overlay on top of World_Physical _Map (see above) Figure 44. World Boundaries and Places on top of World_Physical _Map (see above) Figure 45. World shaded relief Figure 46. Example of World Topo Map Figure 47. DeLorme World basemap Figure 48. World_SRTM, with gradual colour change representing relief Figure 49. World_SRTM2 has a simplified colour scheme that represents the data in five categories Figure 50. AS cropland Figure 51. AS pasture Figure 52. Köppen-Geiger climate classification (see key below) Figure 53. Example of 1:10m Physical Vectors from Natural Earth: showing mountain ranges, deserts, steppe, major valley systems, etc, on the back drop of Natural Earth II Figure 54. Example of desert backdrop Figure 55. Example of World Elevation Contours (with no backdrop). Individual contours lines can be displayed or re-coloured Figure 56. Example of World Linear Water layer, with intermittent and perennial streams Figure 57. Example of simple World Drainage System map Figure 58. World Drainage Systems: can map and chart basin areas, discharge levels, sedimentation load, and distance Figure 59. World Drainage Systems: example of charting basin area, sedimentation and discharge Figure 60. Example of World Gazetteer. Labels and symbols can be rescaled Figure 61. Example of World Cites Page viii Figure 62. ESRI ArcMap Figure 63. ESRI ArcGIS Explorer: showing a detail of an area from China Figure 64. Ayaz Tepe (Uzbekistan). On the left as seen through ArcGIS Explorer (with the World Imagery basemap) and on the right in Google Earth Figure 65. Example of viewing large areas in Google Earth, with the patchy background created by numerous different resolutions and exposures of satellite images Page ix States Parties covered by this study Active partners in the UNESCO Serial transnational World Heritage nominations of the Silk Roads project: Afghanistan, People's Republic of China, Republic of India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Republic of Uzbekistan. Countries at least partly covered by the Thematic Study and who may wish to join the project: Republic of Armenia, Republic of Azerbaijan, People's Republic of Bangladesh, Kingdom of Bhutan, Republic of Iraq, The State of Israel, Italy, Japan, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Republic of Korea, The Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Lebanon, Mongolia, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the State of Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic, and Republic of Turkey. Page x Acknowledgements The study was supported by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre through the voluntary contribution made by China to the World Heritage Fund and commissioned by ICOMOS International Secretariat. Special thanks go to: Regina Durighello, World Heritage Programme Director, ICOMOS International Secretariat, Paris Gwenaëlle Bourdin, World Heritage Programme Senior Specialist, ICOMOS International Secretariat, Paris Susan Denyer, World Heritage Adviser, ICOMOS Feng Jing, Chief of Unit, Asia and the Pacific Section, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris Roland Lin Chih-Hung, Programme specialist, Asia and the Pacific Section, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris Significant work on the project was undertaken by: Paul Wordsworth, GIS specialist and doctoral candidate, Department of Cross- Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen Dr Gaygysyz Jorayev, researcher and translator, Institute of Archaeology, UCL The contributions of the State Parties who kindly shared Tentative Lists, bibliographic and other data, including: Afghanistan, People's Republic of China, Republic of India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Republic of Uzbekistan Generous assistance and advice was also provided by: Kaori Kawakami, Associate expert, Asia and the Pacific Section, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris Prof Guo Zhan, Vice-president of ICOMOS International & Director of the ICOMOS International Conservation Center-Xi an (IICC-X), China Ms Lu Qiong, Deputy Director, Department for Protection of Monuments and Sites, State Administration of Cultural Heritage Dr Abdisafikhan Rakmanov, Deputy Head, Department for the Protection and Utilization of Cultural Objects, Ministry of Culture and Sports, Uzbekistan Dr Shakirdjan Pidaev, Director of the Fine Arts Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan Prof Mavluda Yusupova, Chief, Section on Architecture, Fine Arts Institute, Academy of Sciences, Uzbekistan Dr Server Ashirov, Chief, Archaeology Section, Principal Department for Preservation and Utilization of the Cultural Objects, Ministry of Culture and Sports, Uzbekistan Prof Karl Baipakov, formerly Director of the Institute of Archaeology named after A Margulan, Academy of Science, Kazakhstan Ms Natalya Turekulova, President of ICOMOS Kazakhstan Page xi Dr Dimitry Voyakin, Director of Archaeological Expertise Scientific Organisation, Kazakhstan Dr Mukhammed Mamedov, Chairman, Department for the Protection and Restoration of the Historical and Cultural Monuments, Ministry of Culture and TV and Radio Broadcasting, Turkmenistan Dr Bakhyt Amanbayeva, Head of Department of Cultural Heritage, Institute of History and Cultural Heritage, National Academy of Sciences, Kyrgyz Republic Ms Ainura Tentieva, Expert, ICOMOS Kyrgyz Republic Dr Sherali Khodzhaev, Senior specialist, Department of Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Ministry of Culture, Tajikistan Prof Rustam Mukimov, President of ICOMOS Tajikistan Dr Abduvali Sharipov, Director, National Museum named after K. Behzod, Tajikistan Dr Saidmurod Bobomulloev, Director of the National Museum of Antiquities, Tajikistan Dr Mohammad Hassan Talebian, Member of Scientific Board of Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism, Iran Dr Adel Farhanghi, Director Research Center for Silk Routs and Advisor to the Head of the Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization, Iran Prof Aziz Ahmad Panjshiri, Member of the Board of Policy, Ministry of Information and Culture, Afghanistan Dr Kosh Prasad Acharya, Former Director General, Department of Archaeology Government of Nepal Dr Bishnu Raj Karki, Director General, Department of Archaeology, Government of Nepal Dr Buddha Rashmi Mani, Joint Director General, Archaeological Survey of India Prof Lena Kim, Hongik University & Cultural Heritage Committee Member Prof Juhyung Rhi, Professor of Art History, Seoul National University Ms Hyosang Jo, International Affairs Division, Cultural Heritage Administration, Republic of Korea Dr Shahin Mustafayev, Director of International Institute for Central Asian Studies (IICAS) Mr Yuri Peshkov, Culture Specialist, UNESCO Almaty Cluster Office Mr Sanjarbek Allayarov, UNESCO Cluster Office in Tashkent Prof Kazuya Yamauchi, Center for International Cooperation in Conservation, National research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo, Japan Dr Susan Whitfield, Director of the International Dunhuang Project, The British Library, UK Professor Henry Cleere, Institute of Archaeology, University College London (former World Heritage Coordinator for ICOMOS from , and former Special Advisor to the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China) Dr Matthew Ciolek, National Institute for Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Prof Koenraad van Balen and Ona Vileikis, Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Prof Philippe De Maeyer, Ghent University Page xii 1 Context for this thematic study 1.1 The purpose of the study ICOMOS thematic studies are a synthesis of current research and knowledge on a specific theme. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of sites along the Silk Roads that could be used by States Parties participating in the Serial transnational World Heritage nominations of the Silk Roads as a basis for comparative analyses when nominating series of sites. The scale of existing research on this topic is extensive, ranging from synthetic works and maps, to studies of individual regions and sites 1. The inclusion of sites in this paper is not an indication of their individual significance, or their potential as part of World Heritage serial properties, but rather as part of a wider overview of the nature of sites along these vast routes. The study does not attempt to recommend any specific series of sites for Tentative Lists or for nomination. This study specifically aims to: Provide an analysis of sites along the Silk Roads that could be used by States Parties participating in the Serial transnational World Heritage nominations of the Silk Roads as a basis for comparative analyses when nominating serial properties. Profile the distribution and distinctiveness of Silk Roads sites in order to understand how sites are manifestations of the shifting systems of power and patronage that prevailed over time along the Silk Roads, in relation to the organisation of flourishing trade and the protection of trade routes. Define the distribution of Silk Roads sites, in order to understand: What sites are common to the whole extent of the Roads What sites are specific to the whole Silk Roads or to certain parts of the Roads What sites are unique or exceptional Which sites are plentiful and how their form varies in time and space What sites are persistent over time What sites reflect specific periods of history, power systems or cultural traditions Consider whether certain sections or corridors of the Silk Roads, through the assembly of sites within them, are distinctive from other sections of the Silk Roads, in terms of being manifestations of particular geo-cultural systems, and whether a case could be made for considering the Silk Roads as a collection of World Heritage properties, linked by a concept, instead of one single World Heritage serial property. 1 See Annex 5 on bibliographic sources. 1 P age The Thematic Study was directed by Tim Williams, Institute of Archaeology, University College London (UCL), with the support of members of UCL, and carried out in collaboration with Susan Denyer (ICOMOS) and Feng Jing (UNESCO World Heritage Centre). 1.2 Background to this study Global Strategy In 1988 UNESCO launched its Integral Study of the Silk Roads: Roads of Dialogue project, to highlight the complex cultural interactions which arose from the encounters along the Silk Roads. This prompted a number of regional meetings and scientific expeditions. At broadly the same time a number of key debates were taking place regarding cultural routes and the development of a global strategy for addressing the representivity of the World Heritage list. Key papers included: Desk study on the Asia Region (ICOMOS 2002) Draft Framework for World Heritage Cultural Representation (Jokilehto et al. 2003). In 2004, ICOMOS published The World Heritage List: Filling the Gaps An Action Plan for the Future (ICOMOS 2004). The review analysed cultural sites on the World Heritage List and Tentative Lists, using regional, chronological, geographical and thematic frameworks. The intention was to assess the then current representation of sites, likely short- to mediumterm trends, and identify
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