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Thermal conductivity of metals 1. Overview of heat transfer phenomena Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. When an object or fluid is at a different temperature than its surroundings or another object, transfer of thermal energy, also known as heat transfer, or heat exchange, occurs in such a way that the body and the surroundings reach thermal equilibrium. Heat transfer always occurs from a hot body to a co
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  Thermal conductivity of metals 1. Overview of heat transfer phenomena Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. When an object or fluid is at a different temperature than its surroundings or another object, transfer of thermal energy, also known as heat transfer, or heat exchange, occurs in such a way that the body and the surroundings reach thermal equilibrium. Heat transfer always occurs from a hot body to a cold one, a result of the second law of thermodynamics. Where there is a temperature difference  between objects in proximity, heat transfer between them can never be stopped; it can only be slowed down. Classical transfer of thermal energy occurs only through conduction, convection, radiation or any combination of these. Heat transfer associated with carriage of the heat of phase change by a substance (such as steam which carries the heat of boiling) can be fundamentally treated as a variation of convection heat transfer. In each case, the driving force for heat transfer is a difference of temperature. 2. Heat conduction Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature through direct molecular communication within a medium or between mediums indirect physical contact without a flow of the material medium. The transfer ofenergy could be  primarily by elastic impact as in fluids or by free electron diffusion as predominant in metals or  phonon vibration as predominant in insulators. In other words, heat is transferred by conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another, or as electrons move from atom to atom. Conduction is greater in solids, where atoms are in constant close contact. In liquids (except liquid metals) and gases, the molecules are usually further apart, giving a lower chance of molecules colliding and passing on thermal energy. Heat conduction is directly analogous to diffusion of particles into a fluid, in the situation where there are no fluid currents. This type of heat diffusion differs from mass diffusion in behaviour, only in as much as it can occur in solids, whereas mass diffusion is mostly limited to fluids. Metals (eg. copper) are usually the best conductors of thermal energy. This is due to the way that metals are chemically bonded: metallic  bonds (as opposed to covalent or ionic bonds) have free-moving electrons and form a crystalline structure, greatly aiding in the transfer of thermal energy. As density decreases so does conduction. Therefore, fluids (and especially gases) are less conductive. This is due to the large distance   between atoms in a gas: fewer collisions between atoms means less conduction. Conductivity of gases increases with temperature but only slightly with pressure near and above atmospheric. To quantify the ease with which a particular medium conducts, the thermal conductivity , also known as the conductivity constant   or conduction coefficient  , κ   is used. This parameter is defined as the infinitesimal quantity of thermal energy, δQ , transmitted during an infinitesimal time interval dt   through a thickness dx , in a direction normal to a surface of area (  A ), due to a temperature difference ( dT  ):     ,, T x t Qq x t Adt x        (1) where q  is the so-called heat current. Eq. (1) is suitable to describe the heat transport along a specified direction (here denoted by  x ). In general three-dimensional cases, the spatial variation of the temperature must be taken into account and the temperature gradient should replace its partial derivative in the right hand side of Eq. (1). Accordingly, the heat current will become a vector quantity. Thermal conductivity is a material property that is primarily dependent on the medium's phase, temperature, density, and molecular bonding. Eq. (1) is valid when the medium is homogeneous. When the heat transport occurs in inhomogeneous media, the thermal conductivity varies with  x . A  particularly interesting case is when κ  (  x ) has sharp discontinuities at interfaces between thermally different environments. In such cases, the heat current across the interface obeys the Newton’s cooling law:   q t A T       , (2) where  ΔT   = T  1 - T  2  is the temperature jump across the interface when the heat flows from region 1 towards region 2. The quantity η  is the so-called heat transfer coefficient   and is a characteristic of every thermal interface. 3. Example of a mixed problem with heat conduction and cooling phenomena Consider a rod of a homogeneous material (e.g. a metal) placed in some atmospheric environment. The rod is heated at one of its ends and the thermal energy propagates along it towards the opposite end. Simultaneously, a cooling process takes place at every segment of the rod. If the heat source is constant in time, a stationary temperature distribution will be achieved along the rod. By focusing on some infinitesimal segment of the rod, between  x  and  x  + dx , one may easily express the balance of thermal energy in the steady state  in the following way: the heat q (  x ) dt   entering the segment through its end that is closest to the heat source will split in q (  x+dx ) dt   that is delivered through the other end and the heat dq (  x ) dt   that is lost to the neighboring air by the cooling  process (Fig. 1).  Writing T’  (  x ) for the position derivative of the temperature (which is now constant in time), one may apply Eq. (1) to both ends of the considered segment:                q x dx AT x dxq x dx q x A T x dx T xq x AT x                       . By further applying well-known rules of Calculus, one may find:     dq x AT x      . (3) The heat current dq (  x ) is lost by cooling to the environment. Therefore Eq. Can now apply with  A  replaced by the lateral area πd dx  of the considered segment and with  ΔT   replaced by T  (  x )- T  a , where T  a  is the environmental air temperature and d   is the diameter of the assumed cylindrical rod:      a dq x d T x T dx         . (4) Combining Eqs. (3) and (4), the following differential equation for the stationary temperature distribution along the rod is readily obtained:     2 40; a T x T x T d              . (5) This second-order differential equation has a straightforward general solution:    x xa T x T Ae Be        , (6) where  A  and  B  are undetermined constants. To specify these constants, the values of the temperature at two different positions on the rod should be known. For example, take the temperatures at the ends of the rod, T  h  and T  l  , as given: T  (  x  = 0) = T  l   and T  (  x  =  L ) = T  h . Applying these conditions to the solution (6), one may readily find:      112sinh  L Lh l a  A T T e T e L              , (7) Figure 1 : Sketch of the steady-state thermal energy balance in an infinitesimal segment of the test rod.         112sinh  L Lh l a  B T T e T e L             , (8) where sinh( φ ) is the hyperbolic sinus of the quantity φ . 4. Method of measuring the thermal conductivity of a metallic rod The conditions described in the previous section can easily be obtained for a sample metallic rod. A constant flux of thermal energy can be injected through one of its end and the stationary temperature distribution can be measured along the rod in some specified points. Thus, an experimental steady-state temperature distribution, T  exp (  x ) is obtained. By modifying the parameter α  in Eqs. (6)-(8), one may fit the experimental curve with the theoretical one. From the best-fit value of α  one may then find the thermal conductivity of the sample (Eq. (5)). The only problem is to have the corresponding heat transfer coefficient, η , and the geometrical parameters of the rod. The heat transfer coefficient can be determined separately, by a direct cooling experiment with the whole rod initially heated at some temperature T  0 . The rod is then placed for cooling in the same environment as before. Its average temperature is measured over time and the theoretical cooling curve, T  ( t  ), is fitted with η  as a parameter on the experimental one. For the present version of the experiment the value of η  for the (aluminium) rod has been determined: η  = 15,129 W/(m 2 K). 5. Experimental setup The sample rod is placed vertically with its upper end in tight contact to an aluminium receptacle where water is kept at the boiling point by means of an immersion heater (Figure 2). Warning!  Keep clear of the receptacle’s area to avoid  burns from erratic drops of hot water jumping out the vessel. In the current version of this experiment, the rest of the rod is in full contact with the environmental air whose temperature can be measured with a thermocouple fixed in rod’s neighborhood. Another thermocouple is used to measure the local temperature by placing it in special cavities of the rod. To allow better thermal contact that thermocouple’s end should be greased with special thermo-conductive paste. Temperatures are read in Celsius on a two-screen universal measuring amplifier. Figure 2:  Experimental set-up for thermal conductivity.
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