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for BTHS students Paper VII 1st year
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  Page 1  of 2  topic  –  1 (Food Science and Nutrition) Paper  –  VII: Food Science & Nutrition-100 Marks   FSc(topic1):  Definition and scope of food science and it’s  inter  –  relationship with food Chemistry, food microbiology and food processing Introduction: Healthy individuals can contribute to the wellbeing of the nation. The health of an individual depends to a larger extent on the use of right kind of food.   For survival food stands next to air and water. Food is essential to keep the body functioning properly. The nutritious elements of food provide the growth and upkeep of the body. Food can be defined as   “any substance which when taken into the body can be utilized to yield energy, to build up new tissue & to repair worn-out tissues and to regulate the body processes. Food is defined as  anything solid or liquid which when swallowed digested and assimilated nourishes the body.  According to Chambers Dictionary “that which being digested, nourishes the body and whatever promotes growth is called food”.   Food science    –  Can be defined as the application of the basic sciences and engineering to the study of the fundamental physical, chemical and biochemical nature of foods and the principles of food processing. Food science looks at what food is chemically, the causes of food spoilage, and the processing and preservation of food. Food is a mixture  of many different chemical components. The study of food science involves  an understanding of the changes that occur in these components during food preparation whether natural or induced by handling procedures. Many physical and chemical reactions occur during food preparation. These reactions may be a result of the interaction between components, with the medium of cooking, and the environmental conditions like heat, cold, light and air to which they are subjected during cooking. Study of food science also includes  understanding the nutritive value of different foods and methods of preserving them during cooking. This information provides a foundation of theory and method on which to build the study of food preparation. FOR REFERENCE:   Nature and Content of Food: Nutrients provide chemicals for tissue growth and repair maintain body structure and provide energy for activity.     Energy: Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins.   Growth & Repair: Fats, Proteins, Minerals.   Controlling Process: Proteins, Minerals, Water, and Vitamins. A substance is only food if it provides one or more of the above nutrients and it is eaten in quantities that make a significant contribution to daily nutritional uptake and it is culturally accepted as being food.  For the reasons above pepper, tea, coffee, dogs, and snakes are ruled out. Oxygen is also needed continuously by the body for respiration (oxidation of food) which gives energy for all processes and heats the body and the surroundings. The energy of basal metabolism is the energy required to maintain vital bodily functions (roughly 6700 KJ/day). Constituents of Food: Our food essentially consists of 6 constituents known as nutrients. They are carbohydrate, protein, fats, mineral salts and water. 1. Carbohydrate : These are common sugars and starches composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It supplies heat and energy to the body. 1 gram of sugar yield 4.1 kcal/g of heat energy. The daily requirement of carbohydrate for an average adult is 400 to 500 grams. Example of source is rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, sweets, honey etc.  _____________  _________ 2. Proteins : Protein is a compound that is an essential part of living cells and is one of the elements. Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Each amino acid has the same fundamental structure, differing only in the side-chain, designated the R-group. The carbon atom to which the amino group, carboxyl group, and side chain (R-group) are attached is the alpha carbon (Ca). Some of the essential amino acids are: Leucine, Isoleucine, lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine & Histidine. It is composed of C, H, O & N. Protein is of two types, such as Animal protein & Plant/Vegetable protein.  Animal protein found from milk, egg, fish, meat etc. It is needed for growth and energy. Plant protein is found from peas, beans, wheat, maize, cereals etc. and help in producing energy only. 1 gram of protein yield 4.1 kcal/g of heat energy. An average adult requires at least 1 gram of protein per kg of body weight.  Page 2  of 2  topic  –  1 (Food Science and Nutrition) Paper  –  VII: Food Science & Nutrition-100 Marks  2. Fats & Oils: Fats composed of C, H & O. It provides double the energy as compared to carbohydrate. Fats are a form of concentrate food used as fuels for production of heat and energy. 1 gram of fat/oil yield 9.3 kcal/g of heat energy. The daily requirement for an adult is 45 to 60 grams. Examples are: Butter, Ghee, Curd, Cheese, Vegetable Oils, such as ground nut, mustard, coconut etc. Generally speaking, fats are derived from animal sources, and oils are derived from plant sources. Also generally speaking, fats are solid, or semi-solid at room temperature, whereas oils are liquids at room temperature. There are exceptions, such as palm oil, which is a semi-solid at room temperature. 3. Mineral Salts: These are quite essential for maintenance and growth of the body. It helps in growth and formation of teeth, bones and skin. There are 22 minerals that are needed in varying amounts; 250mg and higher are the major minerals, while the trace minerals are 20mg or less. Most important salts are Phosphate (700mg), Magnesium (310 - 320mg), Potassium (4700mg), Ca (1000mg), S (800 to 900), Fe, Iodine etc. Minerals are defined as inorganic elements required by the body in varying amounts to carry out various body functions. They remain largely as ash when plant and animal tissues are ignited. 4. Vitamins: These are complex organic substances contained in food in small amounts. It provide resistance against diseases, strengthens digestive and nervous systems. From nutritional point of view there are 6 vitamins, i.e. Vitamin A, B, C, D, E & K. Sources are meat, fish, egg, milk & milk products, green vegetables, fruits, cereals & pulses. Vitamins are divided into two groups: water-soluble (B-complex vitamins and C vitamins) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). Although it is also important that fat-soluble vitamins are eaten daily, excessive intake (e.g. from supplements) can be toxic because of the body’s limited ability to excrete them.   5. Water: It forms nearly 65% of bodily weight. Water helps in diluting various food items in our bodies. It is necessary for digestion of food and formation of blood. Water brings out toxic and other poisonous substances in the form of sweat and urine. It also regulates the body temperature. BASIC ASPECTS (Nutrition  –  Topic 1) Food:  Defined as anything eaten or drunk which can be absorbed by the body to be used as an energy source, building, regulating or protective material. Intake of good food can ensure good health. Health: Defined as the condition of body. Good health not only implies freedom from disease, but physical, mental, social & emotional fitness as well. Nutrition:  it has been defined as food the work in the body. Nutrition includes everything that happens to food from the time it is eaten till it is used for various function of the body. Nutrients:  These are components of food that are amounts in order to grow, reproduce and lead a normal healthy life. It includes Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, Mineral Salts, Vitamins and Water. (LONG QUESTION) - Importance of Food (Functions):  Food constitutes 3 functions such as (a) Physiological function, (b) Social function, (c) Psychological function  Physiological function: 1) Building the body - maintain structure of the body and replace worn-out cells. 2) Provide energy  –  carry out professional, household, digested to usable nutrients in the body and to grow. 3) Regulate body activities like:   Beating of the heart   Maintenance of body temperature   Muscle contraction   Control of water balance   Clotting of blood   Removal of waste products from the body Social Function: Food is served almost on all social events like marriages, parties, get-together, official meetings etc., in the form of tea, breakfasts, banquet, dinner etc. On all these occasions, food indirectly serves as a powerful and effective instrument for developing social rapport. Besides other functions, food satisfies certain emotional needs also. Traditional habits are characterized by certain foods, which are pleasing to persons of one culture and some are served invariably to fulfil social and emotional needs of that culture or society. Psychological Functions of Food: Food satisfies certain emotional needs, such as sense of security, love and attention. For example familial foods eaten give us a feeling of security. Mothers’  cooking express love and attention, share of food among friends is a token of friendship and acceptance. Food is used to express feelings of special   attention, friendship, recognition or    punishment. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS   1. What are the main factors that influence our food choices?  Answer: Sensory, cognitive, and cultural  2. List the 6 classes of nutrients.  Answer: Carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, and water   3. What determines whether a mineral is a macromineral or a micro-(trace) mineral?  Answer: Macrominerals are found in and used by the body in the largest amounts. Microminerals are found in and used by the body in smaller amounts.  
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