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A SMART WAY TO TRAVEL & A SMART WAY FOR TRANSPORT SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY (THE FINAL REPORT OF THE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (ITS) STRATEGY REVIEW) TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT GOVERNMENT OF THE HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION NOVEMBER 2001 TABLE OF CONTENT! # $ % Transport Information System Area Traffic Control Systems Traffic Control and Surveillance Facilities Traffic Management and Information Centre Journey Time Indication System! # $ % & ' () Acknowledgement Appendix A - Overseas Intelligent Transport Systems Deployment Appendix B - Local Advisory Panel Appendix C - Expert Review Panel Appendix D - Groupings of Application Areas, Applications and Systems 1 INTRODUCTION This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Strategy Review. The Review which was conducted by Transport Department (TD) commenced in May The objectives of the Review is to formulate an ITS Strategy and Deployment Plan for Hong Kong. 1.1 Definition ITS refers to the deployment of advanced information and telecommunication technologies to enhance the safety, efficiency, reliability and user and environmental friendliness of the transport system. 1.2 Background ITS is widely used in Europe, U.S.A., Japan and Singapore. Experience in these countries indicates that with the use of ITS, travel time could be reduced by 20% to 40%, road capacity could be increased by about 17% to 25%, accident rate could be reduced by about 15% to 50%, and fuel consumption could be decreased by about 40% ITS has been in use in Hong Kong over the last twenty years. Area Traffic Control (ATC) 2, Traffic Control & Surveillance 3, Autotoll, Octopus Card, Electronic Parking Meter, Red Light and Speed Enforcement Cameras, are all applications in the ITS area Our experience indicates that adoption of these systems has brought benefits in terms of reduction in the number of injuries caused by traffic accidents, savings in travelling time and convenience to road users. A before-and-after survey on the Sha Tin ATC system showed that the reduction in travel time was about 30%, the reduction in stops 28% while the total stopping time was drastically reduced by 52%. The Autotoll system, which was introduced in 1993, has since achieved popular usage. About 40% of all vehicles in Hong Kong use Autotoll at present.! #$!%& ' ()*** +!, - &. & /' 0 & - 1 - Red light camera and speed enforcement cameras were introduced in 1993 and 1999 respectively. A before-and-after comparison showed that red light jumping was reduced by 43-55%; speeding cases were reduced by 50% and the overall traffic accidents involving injury were reduced by 40%. The Octopus Card, which is an automatic fare collection system using contactless smartcards, was jointly developed by major public transport operators. 7.4 million cards have been issued and a total of 6 million transactions are made daily on most public transports. Electronic Parking Meters, which use cashless smartcards, were launched in April 1998 to replace mechanical meters However, the existing applications in the ITS area are mostly single purpose systems, and implemented on a small scale. To cope with the rapid development of the society, present day ITS should emphasise the integration of systems as well as the integration of functions, both transport and non-transport Advance in information and telecommunication technologies has provided us with vast opportunities for innovation on traffic management and for improvement in transport services, enabling transport planners to maximise the utilisation of limited road space. 1.3 Purpose of the Review Both local and overseas experiences indicate that implementing ITS applications requires a strategic plan of co-ordinated and long-term development to ensure compatibility of standards, proper co-ordination and efficient and effective use of resources. The ITS Strategy Review (the Review) was therefore conducted with the purpose of formulating a Strategy and Action Plan for the future development and implementation of ITS in Hong Kong 2 INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS STRATEGY REVIEW 2.1 Review Process The Review was divided into three major phases: Preliminary Review, Evaluation of Potential Applications and Development of Strategy & Implementation Plan Preliminary Review: an inventory list was prepared on existing ITS applications in Hong Kong. Details are outlined in to In addition, the development of ITS and the associated technologies employed in the U.S.A., Japan, Europe and Singapore were examined in detail. A brief account of the overseas ITS deployment is given in Appendix A Evaluation of Potential Applications: over 30 potential applications were identified for evaluation. A questionnaire survey was conducted in mid August 2000 among existing ITS stakeholders in the Government, the transport sector and other related industries in Hong Kong. The survey aimed to solicit local ITS stakeholders views on future ITS Applications A Local Advisory Panel consisting of members from the local industries and tertiary institutions was formed to provide advice and input to the evaluation. Membership of the Panel is at Appendix B ITS Application Areas with their associated Applications were selected for further examination Development of Strategy & Implementation Plan: The relationship of the selected applications were examined to form an ITS Framework which illustrated the most efficient integration of systems and functions. Details are set out in Section 3. Based on the ITS Framework, a strategy on the ITS development and an implementation plan were worked out. Details are set out in Section An Expert Review Panel formed by experienced ITS Government officials from the U.K., U.S.A, Japan and Mainland China was invited to provide independent reviews on the proposed ITS Strategy. Membership of the Panel is at Appendix C 3 AN ITS FRAMEWORK 3.1 Need for a Framework The ITS Framework as shown in the chart below defines the relationships and interaction of various components in ITS systems and services to achieve optimum deployment of the selected ITS applications in Hong Kong To ensure that various ITS systems can support more than one Application to achieve interoperability and efficiency, the Applications and ITS systems for each of the Application Areas were defined. Detailed groupings of Application Areas, Applications and the systems are provided in Appendix D The ITS Framework is functional and service driven, instead of technologically driven. This is consistent with the socio-economic conditions and development of Hong Kong. ITS Framework TRANSPORT INFORMATION Transport Information System EMERGENCY VEHICLE OPERATION Emergency Vehicle Dispatching PUBLIC TRANSPORT Bus Fleet Management Passenger Information Passenger Management PEDESTRIAN/CYCLIST FACILITY Pedestrian/Cyclist Guidance Pedestrian/Cyclist Assistance PAYMENT, TOLL & PARKING Electronic Payment Parking Management COMMERCIAL VEHICLE OPERATION Fleet Management Freight Management Hazardous Goods Management Co-ordinated Logistics Area Traffic Control Traffic Signal Access and Restriction Control ROAD WORKS Road Status Monitoring Road Works Management SAFETY AND ENFORCEMENT Safety and Enforcement Government Initiatives Public/Private Partnership Private Initiatives Primary Information Flow Secondary Information Flow TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Traffic Management & Information Centre Traffic Control and Surveillance Ramp Metering CUSTOMER SERVICEs Licensing Vehicle Permit INTELLIGENT VEHICLE Route Guidance Data Logger Driving Assistance Emergency Notification Damage Mitigation In-vehicle Emission Monitoring Automatic Cruise - 4 - 3.2 Application Areas, Applications and Systems By evaluating the needs, effectiveness and related priority of the potential ITS applications, 11 Application Areas had been selected for implementation. These Application Areas with their grouping of services and functionalities are briefly described below - 1. Transport Information To provide a robust transport data infrastructure to support efficient and effective collection, processing and dissemination of transport and traffic data; an Application, namely Transport Information System is proposed to be implemented under this Application Area 2. Urban Traffic Management Area Traffic Control To increase the function, performance and coverage of the automated computerised systems that control signalised junctions within the urban area and some new towns Traffic Signal Equipment To enhance traffic signal equipment to increase the efficiency, durability and effectiveness of the traffic control system Access and Restriction Control To automate access and restriction control and enforcement 3. Strategic Road Network Management Traffic Control & Surveillance (TCS) To expand the coverage of TCS systems which include field equipment such as CCTV systems, variable message signs, lane control signals, automatic incident detection systems, variable speed limit signs and over-height detection system Traffic Management and Information Centre (TMIC) To establish a TMIC as a centralised centre for traffic and incident management. It will also be responsible for traffic information collection and dissemination on the Strategic Road Network (SRN) 4 in Hong Kong Ramp Metering To regulate the access traffic onto the SRN 4. Public Transport Bus Fleet Management - To improve fleet operation efficiency Passenger Information To enhance the provision, facilities and quality of service information for passengers! # 1 & ' )*2#!)**3&! ' ' 455#65))& - 5 - Passenger Management To facilitate crowd control and management 5. Safety and Enforcement To fully automate the enforcement procedures e.g. red light cameras and speed enforcement cameras to assure greater safety, efficiency and effectiveness 6. Payment, Toll & Parking Electronic Payment To enhance electronic monetary transaction on transport-related services including public transport, road and tunnel toll and fee for parking meter/car park Parking Management To facilitate parking asset management and reservation 7. Commercial/Emergency Vehicle Operation Fleet Management - To facilitate the operation of commercial fleets Taxi Fleet Management and Dispatch To facilitate the implementation of a management and dispatch system Emergency Vehicle Dispatching To provide dynamic traffic information to the emergency vehicle dispatching system of the Fire Service Department and the Hong Kong Police Force Freight Management To facilitate and improve efficiency of goods delivery by better co-ordination of activities related to the logistic chain from supplier to receiver through proper integration with fleet management Hazardous Goods Management To facilitate better management in transport and storage of hazardous goods Co-ordinated Logistics - To facilitate better distribution, storage and delivery of goods and facilities 8. Pedestrian/Cyclist Facility Pedestrian/Cyclist Assistance To provide and enhance facilities to assist the elderly and the physically impaired Pedestrian/Cyclist Guidance To guide pedestrian to a destination through streets or to the nearest transport facility 9. Intelligent Vehicle Route Guidance To facilitate route direction, alternative routes and destination information to motorists Data logger To facilitate the tracking of vehicle operation data for accident prevention and incident investigation Driving Assistance To facilitate measures in vehicle design for safe and efficient driving - 6 - Emergency Notification To equip vehicle with location indicator and communication to enlist emergency services Damage Mitigation To equip vehicle with automatic detection devices to avoid collision In-vehicle Emission Control To equip vehicle with emission monitoring and control device Automatic Cruise 10. Road Works Road Status Monitoring Road Works Management 11. Customer Services Licensing To implement the Vehicles And Drivers Licensing Integrated Data system (VALID) as an open access model for on-line processing of vehicle licences Vehicle Permit To introduce electronic vehicle permit 3.3 Public-Private Partnership From the functionalities listed above, it can be seen that many of the Applications are Government projects such as Area Traffic Control Systems, Traffic Management and Information Centre, etc. On the other hand, there are also many Applications that would depend on private initiatives. Public and private collaboration exists in the sharing of data and information for better fleet management and for better distribution of information to the public 4 ITS STRATEGY ITS Objectives & Strategy The review concludes that it is necessary to prioritise the Applications to be implemented by Government for the best delivery of our ITS objectives within a timeframe. The main ITS objectives have been identified as follows:- To create greater efficiency in traffic management To make better and more informed choices by providing road users with access to real-time information To provide better interaction among people, roads and vehicles To better utilise existing transport infrastructure For 2001 to 2010, the review recommends an ITS Strategy which focuses on two main initiatives, namely A Smart Way to Travel and A Smart Way for Safety and Efficiency. Core projects are selected to form the Strategy for the coming 10 years. 4.2 A Smart Way to Travel Under this initiative, a Transport Information System (TIS) serving as a centralised data warehouse will be set up in TD by end Adopting spatial information and web-based technologies, the TIS supports real-time updating and retrieval of transport and traffic information Prototype of Transport Information System The general public will have access through the Internet to information on routing and public transport services. Information on routes and fares, including options based on price, time and the need to interchange will be provided under the public transport enquiries services of the TIS. This pre-trip planning function would encourage the use of public transport and better use of transport facilities for motorists. Route finding function with linkage to relevant information such as car park or petrol filling station locations could also be provided. - * - 4.2.3 Traffic information will be made available to Government agencies for the planning and management of their transport-related operations. This would result in more efficient traffic regulation/diversion by the Police and better coordinated road maintenance works by Highways Department. Fire Services Department and the Police will be provided with real time information to avoid congestion points when deploying their emergency vehicles. - )5 - 4.2.4 The transport operators such as bus companies, railway companies, tunnel operators and commercial vehicle fleet operators would be able to adjust their operation readily to cope with changes in the traffic conditions The private sector, such as third party service providers, would be able to develop value-added applications such as fleet management, personal notification of traffic conditions via mobile telephones, and in-vehicle route display units for drivers Other private sector initiatives will benefit from the TIS. Passenger Information Systems that provide pre-schedule, real-time scheduling and other related information, such as bus location, bus stop information, traffic condition and weather can be developed by the public transport operators, together with their fleet management system Parking Management Systems could be implemented by the car park operators and at major public venues. Dissemination of information on available parking spaces could be via on-street Variable Message Sign, radio, Internet, in-vehicle navigation unit or mobile phones. Parking reservation could also be provided. - )) - 4.2.8 Route Guidance and Pedestrian/Cyclist Guidance Systems can be developed with the data feed from TIS. They will have vast commercial value for packaging into consumer services and entertainment information. With the launching of the 3 rd Generation Mobile Phone service in 2002/3, it is expected that these types of general information packages and personalised services will be in demand in the very near timeframe. - )6 - & % TIS will be an integral part of the transport and information infrastructure in Hong Kong providing the general public, transport operators and Government agencies with a smart and convenient way to travel. - )4 - 4.3 A Smart Way for Safety and Efficiency Under this initiative, the priority is to have comprehensive traffic control and surveillance coverage over the territory and develop territory-wide coordination among control centres for traffic and incident management. In this connection, the following projects will be put in place:- (i) extension of the coverage of Area Traffic Control (ATC) System; (ii) installation of Traffic Control and Surveillance (TCS) facilities on all major expressways; (iii) establishment of a Traffic Management and Information Centre (TMIC); and (iv) implementation of a Journey Time Indication System (JTIS) In Hong Kong, traffic is controlled and monitored by computerised traffic signals operated through the ATC system, and TCS facilities, such as Closed Circuit Television Systems, Variable Message Signs, and Lane Control Signals, installed on expressways At present, ATC systems only cover the urban areas and the New Towns of Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung/Tsing Yi and Shatin/Ma On Shan. For areas without an ATC system, traffic signals cannot be adjusted automatically in response to changes in the traffic flow level, which means there could be under-utilisation of junction capacity at one point yet traffic congestion at the other Currently, CCTV Systems are only installed on limited sections of expressways, i.e. Tuen Mun Road, North Lantau Expressway and the West Kowloon Expressway. To continuously monitor the traffic condition of expressways without CCTV Systems, we will have to rely on the public to report any incidents. This could lead to delays in taking appropriate measures and result in undue congestion, or even secondary incidents. With the growth in population in the northwest New Territories and various new towns, the traffic demand on existing roads will naturally increase. ATC and TCS systems need to be installed in these areas to provide adequate traffic control and management. - )8 - 4.3.5 ATC systems are proposed to be extended to cover all New Towns including Tai Po/North District, Tuen Mun/Yuen Long and Tseung Kwan O. Existing Future Comprehensive TCS facilities including CCTV cameras, variable message signs and lane control signals are recommended to be installed on all major expressways. These systems will be installed on all new expressways from 2001 and will be retrofitted on existing expressways as part of the renovation programme. - )2 - 4.3.7 The existing ATC and TCS systems are controlled and managed by their own respective control centres, with limited linkage among them. There is a lack of direct communication between these centres and thus overall control of the systems. This will render coordination of incident management less efficient and effective especially in cases of emergency or major accidents with widespread impact The proposed TMIC will coordinate territory-wide traffic and incident management. Specifically, it will have direct control of TCS facilities on the SRN and ATC systems, and will co-ordinate closely with tunnel/bridge control centres. The TMIC will also serve as a major source of real-time traffic information for TIS. TMIC is proposed to commence its service in )9 - Traffic Signals CCTV Camera Vehicle Detector TMIC (Similar to MTRC Control Centre as shown) Variable Message Sign Lane Control Signal In addition, JTIS will be implemented in Hong Kong Island as a pilot project to advise motorists of the estimated journey time for travelling to the Kowlo
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