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  AP Unit 1 TestMultiple Choice  Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.  1. In  Federalist 44 Madison argues that: a. the constitution should clearly define all congressional powers.  b. Congress should exercise only expressly enumerated powers. c. the necessary and proper clause is essential to allow implied congressional powers. d. the Constitution should enumerate what congressional powers are not necessary and  proper for the execution of its enumerated  powers. e. Congress should function as it needs.  2. In  Federalist 39 , James Madison argues that the new Constitution: a. eliminates state sovereignty.  b. is both national and federal. c. is primarily national. d. retains the major features of the Constitution. e. is neither national nor federal.  3. U.S. v.  Morrison  is part of the Supreme Court’s recent line of decisions that: a. upheld the rights of women to seek remedies for violence at the federal level.  b. refuse federal protections to minorities who have  been discriminated against. c. limits Congress’ authority in defense of  principles of federalism. d.  Morrison was not a Supreme Court decision. e. expands Congress’ authority in defense of  principles of federalism.  4. Passage of the Violence Against Women Act differed from passage of the Gun-Free School Zone Act because: a. it was supported by extensive data gathered by Congress.  b. it was passed by a unanimous Senate. c. it was passed by overriding a presidential veto. d. it was supported by the Supreme Court. e. it was passed by a unanimous House.  5. Which of these was NOT a principle established in the case of  McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)? a. State governments are forbidden spending more money than they raise each year, while there is no such requirement on the national government.  b. The national government can establish a national  bank, even though the Constiution does not say that it can. c. The national government is supreme to the states when it is acting within its sphere of action. d. The national government has certain implied  powers that go beyond its enumerated powers. e. State laws preempt national laws when the national government clearly exceeds its constitutional powers and intrudes upon state  powers.  6. In determing the power of Congress to regulate commerce in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court: a.  prohibited Congress from regulating business activity on the grounds it violated private  property rights.  b. listed the implied powers of Congress and the national government. c. defined commerce very narrowly in considering the right of Congress to regulate it. d. listed the enumerated powers of Congress and the national government. e. defined commerce very broadly, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.  7. In Gonzales v. Raich (2000), the Supreme Court: a. upheld the California Compassionate Use Act of 1996.  b. deferred to Congress. c. narrowly interpreted the Commerce Clause of Article I. d. overturned Congress. e. upheld the Americans with Disabilities Act.  8. The necessary and proper clause:  a. expands congressional power.  b. requires the Supreme Court to adopt a strict constructionist view of Article I powers. c. supports presidential prerogative powers. d. limits congressional power. e. neither expands or limits congressional power.  9. According to Madison, the branch of government to be most feared because of its inherent  power is: a. the executive.  b. the judiciary. c. the legislature. d. the bureaucracy. e. the presidential offices.  10. A central premise of James Madison in numbers 47, 48, and 51 of The Federalist is that: a. weak government is the best government.  b. the combination of legislative, executive, and udicial power is the very definition of tyranny. c. men are not angels and therefore those who exercise political power must be limited. d.  b and c e. a and b  11. Persons enter into political society and government because: a. they seek a higher authority to protect their rights against invasion by others.  b. the pursuit of happiness can only be guaranteed  by government. c. they seek equality with each other. d. the common defense requires a strong government. e. the common defense is unnecessary.  12. According to Locke, the supreme  power of the Commonwealth is: a. the legislature.  b. the judiciary. c. the bureaucracy. d. the executive. e. the presidential offices.  13. Locke argues that government can only be dissolved when: a. it fails to protect the Commonwealth against foreign attacks.  b. laws are enacted that fail to protect private  property. c. the judiciary assumes legislative authority. d. government acts without the consent of the  people. e. government acts with the consent of the people.  14. Roche argues that the Virginia Plan: a. capitulated to state interests.  b.  provided for an essentially unitary form of government. c. embodied the “Madisonian model.” d. would have allowed the large states to dominate the national government. e. would have allowed the small states to dominate the national government.  15. Roche concludes that federalism: a. represented a victory for states’ rights.  b. reflected a necessary compromise to gain state support for a national government. c. srcinally incorporated the doctrine of state nullification of national laws. d. gave the states more power than the national government. e. was unnecessary.  16. Beard states that the revolutionists and radicals: a. were well represented at the Constitutional Convention.  b. owned no property. c. were not men of large property interests or  practical business experience. d. were skeptical of equality and democracy. e. were men of large property interests or practical  business experience.  17. Beard concludes that under the state constitutions and the Articles of Confederation: a.  property interests were well protected.  b. every powerful economic class in the nation suffered losses. c. a strong national government was unnecessary. d. majority rule was restricted. e. minority rights were enhanced.  18. In  Federalist 16 and 17, Alexander Hamilton argues that: a. the new national government will be a danger to the collective power of the states.   b. it is illusory to worry that the national government will subvert state power. c. the Confederation was an adequate government in its time but now it must be replaced. d. the states will retain their sovereignty under the new Constitution. e. state power will be subverted by the national government.  19. Karl Marx is associated with the view that elites reflect a. a dominant social class.  b. a group of business, military, labor-union, and elected officials. c. an array of appointed bureaucrats. d. a large number of organized interests. e. a flexible alliance of religious and cultural leaders.  20. The Anti-Federalists worried that the new Constitution would: a. create state greatness.  b. enhance state power to the detriment of the national government. c. establish a weak national government. d. create strong political parties. e. undermine state sovereignty.  21. James Madison in  Federalist 45 stated that: a. state governments cannot act without the support of the national government.  b. the state governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government. c. the federal government will have the advantage over state governments. d. state legislatures are not essential to the election of the president. e. state governments should be supreme.  22. Bryce writes that federalism allows states and localities: a. to experiment and fail without threatening the nation.  b. to control the dispensation of all monies involved in governing. c. to join together and dominate the national government. d. to prosper without worrying about a higher authority. e. no freedom whatsoever.  23. By authority , the authors mean a. the right to use power.  b. the manner in which power is spread. c. the use of power for good causes. d. the desire to have power. e. the desire to give power to others.  24. The term  participatory democracy applies most   accurately to which of the following societies? a. Greece in the fourth century B.C.  b. Modern China c. The United States since 1787 d. The Soviet Union between 1917 and 1990 e. The southeastern United States before the Civil War   25. Hobbes believed the answer to the “all-out war” that existed in the state of nature was a. an all-powerful government.  b. a sense of political justice. c. an equal division of property and wealth. d. democratic institutions with limited power. e. a system of organized, state-sponsored religion.  26. The pluralist view of power focuses on a. a dominant social class.  b. a group of business, military, labor-union, and elected officials. c. an array of appointed bureaucrats. d. a large number of organized interests. e. a flexible alliance of religious and cultural leaders.  27. The text presents the historical involvement of the United States in foreign affairs as a. alternating between outward and inward movements.  b. consistently drifting toward imperialism. c. devoid of any pattern whatsoever. d.  being buffeted about by external forces. e. fluid in times of economic prosperity.   28. The trouble with trying to infer the distribution of political power from examining the laws on the books is that a. laws may be enacted in a great variety of circumstances.  b. laws are made to be broken. c. legislative codes may be so obscure as to defy anyone's comprehension. d. many congressional enactments never get recorded at all. e. the judicial branch is rarely independent from the legislative branch.  29. The author of the Declaration of Independence was a. Thomas Jefferson.  b. Thomas Paine. c. George Washington. d. Alexander Hamilton. e. James Madison.  30. Under the Articles of Confederation, amendments had to a.  be written in secret.  b.  be submitted to the national judiciary for approval. c. have the approval of half of the state governors. d.  be supported by all thirteen states. e. All of the above  31. The list of the essential rights demanded by the colonists included life, liberty, and a. trading rights.  b.  property rights. c. the right to own slaves. d. the pursuit of truth. e. fraternity.  32. The American Revolution is described by the text as a war of  a. attrition.  b. ideology. c. economic viewpoints. d.  political elites. e. contending social systems.  33. In the Declaration of Independence, the list of complaints against George III and his ministers spoke of  a. social conditions in the colonies.  b. economic conditions in the colonies. c. specific violations of political liberties. d. the lack of equality among the colonists. e. All of the above  34. Which of the following was not   among the ideas underlying the American Revolution? a. The need for a strong executive  b. The priority of human liberty over government c. The necessity of a written constitution d. Legislative supremacy over the executive branch e. The tendency of human nature toward ambition  35. By 1776, most (eight) states a. had strong executive leaders.  b. had written constitutions. c. had expanded voting rights considerably. d. continued to rely on colonial charters. e. had abolished elective offices.  36. The Founders assumed that representative democracy would a.  prevent sweeping changes in policy.  b. allow persons with higher levels of education to exercise more power. c. result in decisions that were generally efficient and timely. d. often proceed slowly. e. A and D  37. All of the following were true of the government under the Articles of Confederation  except that a. larger states had more votes in the national legislature.  b. there was no national judicial branch. c. the national government could not levy taxes. d. the national government could not regulate commerce. e. amendment required the support of all thirteen states.
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