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Reading full test for students at upper intermediate level
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  FINAL TEST FOR UPPER-INTERMEDIATECLASSESREADING MODULE Reading Passage 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based onReading Passage 1 below. Walking wit din!sa #s Peter L. Falkingham and his colleagues at Manchester University are developing techniues !hich look set to revolutionise our understanding o ho! dinosaurs and other e#tinct animals $ehaved.  The media image of palaeontologists who study prehistoric life is often of eld workers camped in the desert in the hot sun, carefully picking away at therock surrounding a large dinosaur bone. But Peter Falkingham has done little of that for a while now. Instead, he devotes himself to his computer. ot becausehe has become inundated with paperwork, but because he is a new kind of palaeontologist! a computational palaeontologist. hat few people may consider is that uncovering a skeleton, ordiscovering a new species, is where the research begins, not where it ends. hat we really want to understand is how the e#tinct animals and plantsbehaved in their natural habitats. $rs Bill %ellers and Phil &anning from the'niversity of &anchester use a (genetic algorithm() a kind of computer codethat can change itself and(evolve()to e#plore how e#tinct animals likedinosaurs, and our own early ancestors, walked and stalked. The fossilised bones of a complete dinosaur skeleton can tell scientists alot about the animal, but they do not make up the complete picture and thecomputer can try to ll the gap. The computer model is given a digitisedskeleton, and the locations of known muscles. The model then randomlyactivates the muscles. This, perhaps unsurprisingly, results almost without failin the animal falling on its face. %o the computer alters the activation patternand tries again ... usually to similar e*ect. The modelled (dinosaurs( +uickly(evolve(. If there is any improvement, the computer discards the old pattern %T - IT% P/01/2& F0/ 03/%2% %T'$I% - Phone! 4565 6644 - eb! set)edu.com7web  1  and adopts the new one as the base for alteration. ventually, the muscleactivation pattern evolves a stable way of moving, the best possible solution isreached, and the dinosaur can walk, run, chase or gra8e. 2ssuming naturalselection evolves the best possible solution too, the modelled animal should bemoving in a manner similar to its now)e#tinct counterpart. 2nd indeed, usingthe same method for living animals 9humans, emu and ostriches: similar topspeeds were achieved on the computer as in reality. By comparing theircyberspace results with real measurements of living species, the &anchesterteam of palaeontologists can be condent in the results computed showinghow e#tinct prehistoric animals such as dinosaurs moved. The &anchester 'niversity team have used the computer simulations toproduce a model of a giant meat)eating dinosaur. It is called anacrocanthosaurus which literally means (high spined li8ard( because of thespines which run along its backbone. It is not really known why they are therebut scientists have speculated they could have supported a hump that storedfat and water reserves. There are also those who believe that the spines actedas a support for a sail. 0f these, one half think it was used as a display andcould be ;ushed with blood and the other half think it was used as atemperature)regulating device. It may have been a mi#ture of the two. Theskull seems out of proportion with its thick, heavy body because it is so narrowand the <aws are delicate and ne. The feet are also worthy of note as they looksurprisingly small in contrast to the animal as a whole. It has a deep broad tailand powerful leg muscles to aid locomotion. It walked on its back legs and itsfront legs were much shorter with powerful claws.Falkingham himself is investigating fossilised tracks, or footprints, usingcomputer simulations to help analyse how e#tinct animals moved. &odern)daytrackers who study the habitats of wild animals can tell you what animal madea track, whether that animal was walking or running, sometimes even the se#of the animal. But a fossil track poses a more considerable challenge tointerpret in the same way. 2 crucial consideration is knowing what theenvironment including the mud, or sediment, upon which the animal walkedwas like millions of years ago when the track was made. #periments cananswer these +uestions but the number of variables is staggering. To physicallyrecreate each scenario with a bo# of mud is e#tremely time)consuming anddi=cult to repeat accurately. This is where computer simulation comes in. 2  Falkingham uses computational techni+ues to model a volume of mudand control the moisture content, consistency, and other conditions to simulatethe mud of prehistoric times. 2 footprint is then made in the digital mud by avirtual foot. This footprint can be chopped up and viewed from any angle andstress values can be e#tracted and calculated from inside it. By runninghundreds of these simulations simultaneously on supercomputers, Falkinghamcan start to understand what types of footprint would be e#pected if an animalmoved in a certain way over a given kind of ground. ooking at the variation inthe virtual tracks, researchers can make sense of fossil tracks with greatercondence. The application of computational techni+ues in palaeontology isbecoming more prevalent every year. 2s computer power continues toincrease, the range of problems that can be tackled and +uestions that can beanswered will only e#pand. Questions 1-% $o the following statements agree with the information given in /eadingPassage > ? 'n boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet write &'U( i! the statement agrees with the in!ormation F)L*( i! the statement contradicts the in!ormation +& /(+ i! there is no in!ormation on this > In his study of prehistoric life, Peter Falkingham rarely spends time onoutdoor research these days.@ %everal attempts are usually needed before the computer model of adinosaur used by %ellers and &anning manages to stay upright.4 hen the %ellers and &anning computer model was used for people, itshowed them moving faster than they are physically able to.6 %ome palaeontologists have e#pressed reservations about theconclusions reached by the &anchester team concerning the movementof dinosaurs.A 2n e#perienced tracker can analyse fossil footprints as easily as thosemade by live animals. /esearch carried out into the composition of prehistoric mud has beenfound to be inaccurate. Questions 0- %T - IT% P/01/2& F0/ 03/%2% %T'$I% - Phone! 4565 6644 - eb! set)edu.com7web  3  abel the diagram below. #hoose $% &%R ()*$ %$ +%R, !rom the passage !or each answer.+rite your answers in boxes - on your answer sheet. 4

Lab 3

Jul 23, 2017
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