Instruction manuals

Wax

Published
of 23
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Description
waxes
Transcript
    Waxes   ection   3 ,J~affin  axja rude   VThepresenceofP.(i~ .im 1.~waxesncrudeoilspresentsahostof problems g j h~ pr()~ucer,transporter,andrefiner. th~~b_l_lil.~-up.fparaffins. andasphaltenesrepresentstheorganicequivalentofscaleformation,and theirpresen~~_i_IlheTOrmati~~'tubin?4transferlines,storagevessels,and.2 pelinesca~l~adto serious p.robl~111S.~Ql:l <:pls_as~<2_<:i(ltediththeir presencerange  f qm _1P.inor:o.severe'~Il~_(le'peI1~_ontheirquantityand compositio_Il.However,~J:_e_.par:;iffInaxesarevaluablesourcesofrefined productsranginglr.9~E:l9 9roil}?jt: f~ e);,   Ifoneexaminesthenatureofaproductionreservoir,itbecomesevi\dentth<iith~~i_~gll<;:ill_r:~~?ihavemuchthesameasadistillation apparatus, ~Whenthesereservoirsareta~Q,Jflevolatilecomponentsare.Oftenthefirst ~t: :li~::f:~;1~;;t~~~~~i~:~E~ti~f tb;;::ea~J{;-*:~:~~~~~~;:e:St: result~th-;;'p~essure-drops.(andthereforethedriveeff~~IlCYdec;eas~s'j:~;;d.... t nem obiHry   the remainingheavy_fr~c}ion.declines. As this_<2_~~ :lI~'..thejob 2~PLo-d~ingth~<ii~ iiiii~friii.f._ri 1~J?e.~()rpgsI}.(Teas.inglydi~clllilndspec:l'al measuresmustbeundertakentocombattheseeffects.   Ad#i1:iOD' LdlffI_c~j'ties--~rise's-the'depth ~f production..horizons~ ~~_theJI1IJ.l>ili.tx 9f lightercrudefractionsis considerably greaterthanthehighermolecularweightasphalteneandparaffinwaxfrag-   etroleum ompaniesandWaxes   4 _ments,theover~urdenacts_~~~~~~ip~rmeab~eme~ >.r.flIl~~__a Iowi:Qg_Jight fragmentsu_pwardmigration.VThe.overall.resultistheaccumulationof increasingly-h-~avycrudefra~-tionsoccupYingth-eres~;~cir. .r: :.-.--- .---.-..... - -..-_._-....-...----.--._..---...-.-.---  araffin ~ roduction roblems ---....._.~- -___,___-, ... --- ...   - -   . ~-  _. .. _ _ ..   .~----- --   -~~   Theincreasedconcentrationofheavywaxfragmentswithinaging£u~g_ increflsingly-deeperreservoirsisjustthebeginningsoftheproducer'sPIQ_b.:, lems-:J\rariablet~£luid.velocit eSIe;;1 _ltl g_ft0IllYi~~Q~itys:[e_~~ _~axdeQD ~sit~m;inthe fOl}P:~J;i9P age: ~ubLllg,<lIldn(it1l.ra}c~9keforIIl~i9I\ i?Y_ci~- _~9 : asphaltenes andwaxes 9,11 converg~t()_r~.str_i.~ :..p_r9_g_g~~~<? l;ncethecrude exits the weJ1_ r _t. 1~ffrJiIl~~,-tJ;~a _D ~~_ V~S-s-~J§, Ilci _s~o~(lg~_ ?:I. _~_§~~__ allnege;~tedQ}0:hqu:_esenc_e--Dfp:fr..affiIl_\'I<J.X~~nteImingledJVith__~s, .§_2E4s,__ l_Ilcl ~_ :Q~ Q_g_ by:p. :o.ducts~Discontinuou~_~Qf_fa__f_e;;..fl~_t :~. ~i_~~sorthe formation QLwL:l~ crystals, and solid phase emulsions,combinatio_g_ -- ._---_ _ .- --- ~axi~E?b:<l teDe deposits, andgelledcrudesfrequentlyappear.. ' Ma.:9:Y oftheseproblemscanbeeffectivelyresolvedbylh~__allpmp_riate __lp_plkat~_()n_fcrystalmodifiercjtemicals;howevermanyfactorsde~_ _~ne .. Eef~~?~.i.t;ygf~_1 ~_h tr:~a_tP._~ t;s_,, 2~_appl~c~tio 1 gf de~~~_u~~~~ ~~e::m~g_t_()_f_th:~_s_~hemicalsshouldbeas early intpe production ~treamas__p_Q§_s ple:'' t::.~E_C:~~~llreisimportanttoboththeprocessofemulsionE~~~1?- ti<?Il~ndcrystalmodificationand,asweshallseeinmuchgreaterdetailinthe  -~ . . chaptersthatfollow, L~_~~ oEeoftheprimaryphysicalvariablesdeten;niniQg_ theeffectivenessofchemicaltreatment. --~-t--..-. ~- -_ _..-..-_. .J l.?:.r.~v_v.<lX__ depcsition withintheproducingreservoir isan extr~_lE~ _difficultproblemtoresolveonceitbeginsand,inmany instances,   ~nVQlx~ thecessation_of natural driveproductionfromthesereservoirafRe~ -U-~tffi~~tsofteninvolvetheuseofsolventsoaks,hotwater,orhotoiLJl:..e.i k_ ~e~ts-to'revitalizeP~9duction. Eachofthesemeth:()_~~_~r_c:_sharacterized~ ~trerigth~~Akp~ss~SlJ)1,l_t th~~~p-;QiY~}yeli shut-intime th~U§__~ ~t9..11-PLQdu~er,  Whileitistrue.thatwax.andasphaltenedepositioncanbemoderated ~rod-;;cti()nrates,-irisalso-'t~ethat-~tr;de--off e yiSts be-tw~~-~·th~f2rma- -ti~,nO[n~~~;ill)} ;;:lE:~a.:-~~p~alte~~_~?d·w~~llOke? fhes_~~~t~ ~~~~~?~~ asspeedcontrolsfortheproductionrateofcrudeoilfromacompleted~ ana i:fth:_~~~ 9Ii-stralllts i.re i.i l() ~~~ h~- consequencesi:a~~32 ~i()~~t yn theILf~_c::xpe~t:<:t~cI9_f_<. _J2_r()cluciIlgit~' ~_~ll~_PE()_~~§s_ofbringi~Ks:rude _Qil. ~J_l~.~1l.rface,the. f1?~ v,,: ocity_ S  0.9_~9~> th_~urob<l:Qili ¥.Qf~axdeposi- ~~~;~~:i;lr~~n~;~~_:~~;~~~l~~~]~I-l~i[~J~J~~U-~~ih~St~; Jl~g_.2t(l_s_p~teJ?:e..<i_ep().0_ti? 1§__~s.. :_ease_<:i_by_ll_<:__ :.eBJI. i lgncr~asesin streaff i ~ 1_tial;:'ifhus,thejoboftheprod_\ls1JgI}_.~~nginc:er i~2..~ ~~J_tll_c:_g~l ?: :l_~_~.l?I_a.ceg ~;;-J;C~- O~~~~~ I_E:__i~_~()<il:1:~~i<:>_ __ Vile llli in ~iE:~?-_g.lt~)ifeexpectancyofthe\\T~I.Is\lnderhisorhersupervision, :---SectionII,Chapter6   ~ \\f~  5  /~_ovaLof_Par.affin Wi Deposits  j~e_  » ~ ,d~Rositionhasoccurred,tl1~Qptionsavailabletoproduction andfacilityengineers  _rl ~ ~ W~-1JS~nof,hotQiL,hotwater, hot waterandsur f,:c.~~ ,,<l~~~olve.nts.Because~ageof  11~~~ Il~':.~_odshas associatedintrinsic risks,theirapplicatiQl}~<lmatte~Qn.~.deral)_l_~.~gn~'fr_he.useofhotoil ,_t~ea~c:~ S_in~~:re_~tJj.<:: ~< __V\',=11~,~a,n,~gravateheproblemin..helongrun, eventhoughtheimmediateresultsappeargood_; ~...tecbniqlJe tlSllaJly ~ ~~ h. e. h.~.a.tingofgoredoilfromtheproductionsiteandcirculatingit dow:;  ir;;;~i ~~~ ~l~h~~~ ,~t~:sb_~~~S~~taltllollghli_gllt~ ..~_~~~l ~hiCh. actasmorta _forth.e,h~0~r:_ V~~s ~I~. .~I lp:v~,d-,tll~. Iighfrmshing.tr.(\c:t_iQns, becomeconcentrated~TIYs.effecU~__2?cr_ticular1ydam(igi[1K Q,.tJlenear-well bore,<lr:~,L~~n.(Irepeated__l eannents. Daycausesevere,?~st:_ru~,tio 1~;_Qi _t,wi_ll_ ~g_u,ireincreasinglyseveretreatmentstQ r.em()v~. ' g(),LW.' te:randcombinedhotwaterandsurfactanttreatmentsmustbe ~~a.,refullyconsideredpriortr;;implementation,because S9m~. producingfor mati9.. ?_~~wat~:r,sensi¥e.However,W.lle,I1_OI1ditions~l o~.,..theseprocec Al} :~s  :r e quite effective;'~h_~l'~n;~_<;I:tg1~I.~_pgJ~)l·med, l~ng__Qm_Qi1.1rucks thatheatthewater,~water;lnd_s_1, .rfac_tanL~Il9:J>ume,it0W?_th~~l;>iI1g_.()_ removethedep<2_sits..hehotwater.tc;ch.I i_gl}.~~fE~I§__frol lhesame,limit_~: tionsasthehotoil,_IIl~thod,andhighermolecularweightwaxesLthosewith highermel. i g_p_Qin_~)recoJJ.<::en.t:ril:t~_'i,.   Thecombinedhotwat~r:,~rfactantmethodallowsthesu~nsionof soli~bY;he~l}r:fac: aDt'sbipolarinteractionattheinterfacel;le,1}-V~.~Qhewater Eldwax.~~l ucl;l_ofthehigherfractionsarecarriedoutofthewellassus .Ee~?;§.i<?n_s On~dditionaladvantageoftheuseofcombinedhotwatersurfac-  \  Organi~_Ile_RQ ition  ontroL   Althoughgoodprodllc::_tioflpracticescanminimizetheformationof ~ph;:tlten~andwai-deP9sits,theeconomicviabilityofawellde~aIl9s.;lmin imumproductionratev'I'hisproductionratemaynotalwaysbeachievedby' -=-E_ :?~duc:£i()ll~ngrn~e~ingtechnIques,anditisinthesecases that chemical trea~n.~becomesanecessity. As mentionedearlier,Vc: ],stalmodifierchemi- I ,calsarel,ll?.~t_~~ec~velyappliedasearlyintheproductionstr~<:tm_a§possible.  ThelackofcapillaryinjectionfacilitiescomplicatesthelogisticsofcrystaL modifier-a:aaruon,-anclofte~  ~es;;fi:s in tlie i~properadditionofchemical uncier_.le,s~tl <l lopiimaiconditions.' v  i s g~t,tmc;ommontoseedepositionoccurring   thewell,~ ldchem icalsbei_?g .cLded,g:t~ ,the,,~ellh~<ld·~ilethj~EE~_cti~elE:~Y_p.r.:~~<:J:1~.c.9Iltin ueddepositionintransferlinesandstoragevessels,thesourceoftheproblem  g~ untr~~ted:W~ri~usatt~Il1p ~toadd crystal modifierdownthe,backside areonlypartiallr.~_l .c_c:~s_gul,incethisintermittentchemicalcontactwithpro- ductionfluids ~annotmaintainoptimalchemi~aldoselevels.. ------ . - -- ~ -  .... _ . . ... ..  .   _  PetroleumCompaniesandWaxes 
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks