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1. New York State Youth Development Survey 2008 Results Report for: Zone 2 7-12th Grade Students Ulster County Provided by New York State Office of Alcoholism and…
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  • 1. New York State Youth Development Survey 2008 Results Report for: Zone 2 7-12th Grade Students Ulster County Provided by New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services April 2009 David A. Paterson, Governor Karen M. Carpenter-Palumbo, Commissioner
  • 2. Message from Commissioner Karen M. Carpenter-Palumbo I am pleased to present the New York State 2008 Youth Development Survey Report for your school district. Your support will allow us to better plan for prevention services to address our common goals of improving academic achievement and reducing the problem behaviors that can impede academic success, such as substance use, violence and dropping out of school. You and your students have helped us to measure the risk and protective factors that your community can modify to improve their long-term success. This report will help us to prioritize where and how to focus our resources. Thanks to the time, energy and commitment of many devoted individuals, more than 100,000 students were surveyed in over 400 schools, making this one of the largest student surveys New York State has ever conducted. I would like to thank each of the school district superintendents who approved the use of precious class time, and the faculty, prevention staff and coalition volunteers who administered the survey. While it is not possible for a single Karen M. Carpenter-Palumbo social institution to address all of our challenges, we have developed a data-driven planning process to better address Commissioner the needs of our diverse schools, communities, county and state partners. Our prevention service providers and community coalitions can assist you in using the survey results to better address the risk & protective factors identified in this report. You can use our online prevention directory to locate a prevention provider serving within your county or borough: http://www.oasas.state.ny.us/preventionDirectory/index.cfm OASAS plans to support this survey every two years so that collectively we can track our progress in reducing substance use and other problem behaviors. Together we can improve our students’ academic achievements and help them live a healthy, happy and productive life.
  • 3. A special thanks to these planning improvement partners: Council of Local Mental Hygiene Directors (CLMHD) Association of Substance Abuse Professionals (ASAP) - Prevention Committee Council on Addictions of New York State (CANYS) Onondaga-Cortland-Madison B.O.C.E.S. Tompkins-Seneca-Tioga B.O.C.E.S. NYS School Boards Association New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services Division of Outcome Management and System Investment William J. Phillips, Associate Commissioner Bureau of Research, Epidemiology and Practice Improvement Robert J. Gallati, Dr. Gregory A. Rainone Division of Prevention, Recovery, Technology and Management Services Mary Ann DiChristopher, Acting Associate Commissioner Bureau of Prevention Services Dr. Barry R. Donovan The New York State Youth Development Survey was produced by International Survey Associates/Pride Surveys under a contract with the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services. For more information, visit www.pridesurveys.com
  • 4. Contents C MODEL PROGRAMS RELATED TO RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS 41 1 INTRODUCTION 7 D RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS DEFINITIONS 51 2 RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS 10 E COMPARISIONS OF CTC VS NYS YDS ON RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS 56 2.1 HOW TO READ THE CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 F DATA TABLES 57 3 ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, AND OTHER DRUG USE 18 F.1 Risk and Protective Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.1 HOW TO READ THE CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 F.2 Lifetime Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs . . . . . 65 4 GAMBLING PREVALENCE INFORMATION 28 F.3 Past 30 Day Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs . . . 67 4.1 HOW TO READ THE CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 F.4 Heavy Use and Antisocial Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 F.5 Average Age of First Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 5 SCHOOL SAFETY ISSUES 32 F.6 Sources and Locations of Alcohol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5.1 HOW TO READ THE CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 F.7 Gambling Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 6 DRUG-FREE COMMUNITIES SUPPORT PROGRAM CORE F.8 School Safety Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 MEASURES 36 APPENDICES A SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT USING SURVEY DATA 38 A.1 What are the numbers telling you? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 A.2 How to decide if a rate is ”unacceptable.” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 A.3 Use these data for planning: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 B PREVENTION RESOURCES 40 B.1 Additional Needs Assessment Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4
  • 5. List of Tables 22 Percentage of Students Reporting Protection for Family Domain . . 62 23 Percentage of Students Reporting Protection for School Domain . . 63 1 Student Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 24 Percentage of Students Reporting Protection for Individual/Peer Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 2 Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 25 Lifetime Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs, By Grade 3 Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Level and Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4 Are you Hispanic or Latino? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 26 Lifetime Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs, By Grade Level and Group (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5 Ethnic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 27 Past 30 Day Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs, By 6 Risk Factors That Inhibit Healthy Youth Development . . . . . . . . 10 Grade Level and Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 7 Protective Factors That Promote Healthy Youth Development . . . 11 28 Past 30 Day Prevalence of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs, By Grade Level and Group (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8 Core Measure by Grade for Past 30 Day Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 29 Percentage of Students With Heavy Use of Alcohol and Cigarettes . 69 9 Core Measure by Grade for Perception of Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 30 Percentage of Students With Antisocial Behavior in the Past Year . 70 10 Core Measure by Grade for Parental Disapproval . . . . . . . . . . . 36 31 Average Age of First ATOD Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 11 Core Measure by Grade for Age of Onset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 32 Average Age of First Antisocial Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 12 Core Measure by Sex for Past 30 Day Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 33 Students’ Response to ”If you drank alcohol in the past year, how 13 Core Measure by Sex for Perception of Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 did you usually get it?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 14 Core Measure by Sex for Parental Disapproval . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 34 Students’ Response to ”If you drank alcohol in the past year, where did you usually drink it?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 15 Core Measure by Sex for Age of Onset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 35 Percentage of Students Engaged in Gambling Activities . . . . . . . 75 16 Risk and Protective Factor Scale Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 36 Percentage of Students Engaged in Gambling Activities (continued) 76 17 Percentage of Students Reporting Risks for Community Domain . . 57 37 Percentage of Students Engaged in Gambling Activities (continued) 77 18 Percentage of Students Reporting Risks for Family Domain . . . . . 58 38 Students’ Response to ”How many times in the past have you taken 19 Percentage of Students Reporting Risks for School Domain . . . . . 59 a handgun to school?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 20 Percentage of Students Reporting Risks for Individual/Peer Domain 60 39 Students’ Response to ”How wrong do you think it is for someone your age to take a handgun to school?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 21 Percentage of Students Reporting Protection for Community Domain 61 5
  • 6. List of Figures 1 Risk Factors - Grades 7-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Risk Factors - Grades 9-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3 Risk Factors - Grades 11-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4 Protective Factors - Grades 7-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5 Protective Factors - Grades 9-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6 Protective Factors - Grades 11-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7 Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use - Grades 7-8 . . . . . . . . . 19 8 Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use - Grades 9-10 . . . . . . . . 20 9 Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use - Grades 11-12 . . . . . . . . 21 10 No Child Left Behind Profile - Grades 7-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 11 No Child Left Behind Profile - Grades 9-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 12 No Child Left Behind Profile - Grades 11-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 13 Sources and Locations of Alcohol Use - Grades 7-8 . . . . . . . . . 25 14 Sources and Locations of Alcohol Use - Grades 9-10 . . . . . . . . . 26 15 Sources and Locations of Alcohol Use - Grades 11-12 . . . . . . . . 27 16 Gambling Behaviors - Grades 7-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 17 Gambling Behaviors - Grades 9-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 18 Gambling Behaviors - Grades 11-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 19 School Safety Profile - Grades 7-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 20 School Safety Profile - Grades 9-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 21 School Safety Profile - Grades 11-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 6
  • 7. 1. INTRODUCTION the students’ responses were conducted. In addition, additional checks were made of survey findings aggregated at the classroom- and school-levels. For example, in a small number of cases it was clear that students did not have sufficient time to This report summarizes findings from the New York State Youth Development appropriately respond to the surveys, and students from these classes were excluded Survey conducted in the Fall of 2008. The survey instrument was designed to assess from the data set. In total, 19,589 surveys, or 17.5% of the total, were excluded risk and protective factors that predict substance use and other problem behaviors from further analyses. This process resulted in a final count of 92,058 valid surveys such as delinquency. The survey also measures substance use, youth gambling from 7th-12th grade New York students. and other problem behaviors. In addition, grade groups and gender comparisons often are provided as well. This survey was completed by students in 409 selected Tables 1-5 contain comparisons to the schools in zone 2, all schools in your county, schools throughout the state of New York. Of the estimated total of 125,000 and state data. The zone comparison is the aggregated data from all the students students eligible to participate in the survey, 111,647 did so, for an overall response surveyed in zone 2 of your county. The county comparison is the aggregated data rate of 89.3%. from all the students surveyed in your county. The state data consists of a weighted sample of the data collected across the state of New York. OASAS uses a number of surveys in assessing the prevalence of substance use, gambling and related problems. The YDS is especially valuable because it provides Table 1 contains a count of the students included in this report. Table 2 provides information on risk and protective factors for school districts and county planning. information on the number and percent of students surveyed at each grade level. However, due to differences in survey design, sampling methods, months of admin- Table 3 provides information on the number and percent of students surveyed by istration and estimation methods, the substance use, gambling and other results sex. Table 4 provides information on the number and percent of students surveyed will differ somewhat across the different surveys, such as, the Youth Development by Hispanic status. Table 5 provides information on the number and percent of Survey conducted by ISA/PRIDE, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) con- students surveyed by race and ethnicity. ducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and The National Survey Table 1: Student Totals on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) as well as other OASAS Surveys. All these surveys are used by OASAS for policy development and planning at the Response Group 2008 state and regional levels. Total Students zone2 3,443 county 9,264 An important measure of the statistical precision of the survey is called the confi- state 92,058 dence interval. The size of the confidence interval is determined, in large part, by the number of students participating in the survey. Because of the large number of students participating in the NYS YDS, for all of the statewide analyses we estimate that the confidence interval is quite small, typically ±1% or smaller. To understand what this means, suppose that 50% of the survey students reported using alcohol sometime in their lifetime. A confidence interval of ±1% means that there is a 95% likelihood that the true percentage of students who have tried alcohol is 50% ±1%, or from 49% to 51%. (When examining results at the county- or district- levels, the number of students included in the analyses is smaller, and the size of the confidence interval will increase. The calculated confidence intervals will be noted in those reports.) As noted above, 111,647 students from the 7th-12th grades returned survey forms for scoring. Following receipt of the surveys, all survey forms were checked to determine the validity and reliability of the data. A small percentage of students were judged to have returned invalid survey data. For example, students who claimed to use all drugs at the highest levels of use were eliminated from the final data set. In total, five separate checks of the logical consistency and validity of 7
  • 8. Table 2: Grade Table 3: Sex 2008 2008 Response Group pct n Response Group pct n 7 zone2 18.1 624 Male zone2 48.0 1,606 county 18.1 1,673 county 47.8 4,296 state 19.8 18,241 state 46.6 41,475 8 zone2 16.7 576 Female zone2 52.0 1,743 county 15.3 1,415 county 52.2 4,688 state 21.4 19,668 state 53.4 47,499 9 zone2 18.9 650 county 18.5 1,711 Table 4: Are you Hispanic or Latino? state 15.2 14,029 10 zone2 17.7 611 county 18.1 1,675 2008 state 15.2 13,990 Response Group pct n 11 zone2 14.3 494 No zone2 87.7 2,913 county 16.2 1,504 county 86.7 7,714 state 14.2 13,090 state 77.5 68,558 12 zone2 14.2 488 Yes zone2 12.3 410 county 13.9 1,286 county 13.3 1,179 state 14.2 13,040 state 22.5 19,880 8
  • 9. Table 5: Ethnic Origin 2008 Response Group pct n Asian American zone2 1.9 63 county 1.6 144 state 5.8 5,197 Black or African American zone2 7.8 263 county 5.4 492 state 14.3 12,759 Native American or Alaska Native zone2 0.9 31 county 0.9 80 state 1.2 1,040 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander zone2 0.5 17 county 0.5 45 state 0.5 479 White zone2 68.9 2,332 county 73.0 6,660 state 52.4 46,771 Multi Racial zone2 11.0 371 county 9.4 858 state 8.0 7,179 Other zone2 9.1 309 county 9.2 840 state 17.8 15,878 9
  • 10. 2. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS chart to indicate where at least two well designed, published research studies have shown a link between the risk factor and the problem behavior. Table 6: Risk Factors That Inhibit Healthy Youth Development Risk and protective factor-focused prevention is based on a simple premise: To prevent a problem from happening, we need to identify the factors that increase the risk of that problem developing and then find ways to reduce the risks. Just as PROBLEM BEHAVIORS Delinquency medical researchers have found risk factors for heart attacks such as diets high in Pregnancy Substance Drop-Out Violence fats, lack of exercise, and smoking, a team of researchers, the Social Development School Abuse Teen Research Group (SDRG), at the University of Washington has defined a set of risk factors for drug abuse. The research team also found that some children exposed Risk Factors to multiple risk factors manage to avoid behavior problems later even though they Community were exposed to the same risks as children who exhibited behavior problems. Based Availability of Alcohol and Other Drugs on research, the team identified protective factors and processes that work together Community Laws and Norms Favorable to buffer children from the effects of high risk exposure and lead to the development Toward Substance Use of healthy behaviors. Transitions and Mobility Low Neighborhood Attachment Risk factors include characteristics of school, community, and family environments, Community Disorganization as well as characteristics of students and their peer groups that are known to predict increased likelihood of drug use, delinquency, and violent behaviors among youth Extreme Economic Deprivation (Hawkins, Catalano Miller, 1992; Hawkins, Arthur Catalano, 1995; Brewer, Family Hawkins, Catalano Neckerman, 1995). Family History of the Problem Behavior Family Management Problems Protective factors exert a positive influence or buffer against the negative influ- Family Conflict ence of risk, thus reducing the likelihood that adolescents will engage in problem Parental Attitudes Favorable Towards behaviors. Protective factors identified through research reviewed by the Social Drugs/Other Problem Behavior Development Research Group include: Social bonding to family, school, commu- School nity and peers; and healthy beliefs and clear standards for behavior. Academic Failure Research on risk and protective factors has important implications for prevention Low Commitment to School efforts. The premise of this approach is that in order to promote positive youth Individual/Peer development and prevent problem behaviors, it is necessary to address those factors Early Initiation of Drug Use that predict the problem. By measuring risk and protective factors in a population, Early Initiation of Problem Behavior specific risk factors that are elevated and widespread can be identified and tar- Rebelliousness geted by preventive interventions that also promote related protective factors. For Friends Who Use Drugs/ example, if academic failure is identified as an elevated risk factor in a commu- Engage in Other Problem Behavior nity, then mentoring and tutoring interventions can be provided that will improve Favorable Attitudes Towards Drug Use/ academic performance, and also increase opportunities and rewards for classroom Other Problem Behavior participation. Perceived Risk of Drug Use Risk and protective factor-focused drug abuse prevention is based on the work of J. Peer Rewards for Drug Use David Hawkins, Ph.D., Richard F. Catalano, Ph.D.; and a team of researchers at Depressive Symptoms the University of Washington in Seattle. Beginning in the early 1980’s, the group Indicates that 2 or more epidemiological prospective studies have researched adolescent problem behaviors and identified risk factors for adolescent found the risk factor to predict youth problem behavior. drug abuse and delinquency. The chart below shows the links between the 16 risk factors and the five problem behaviors. The check marks have been placed in the 10
  • 11. Table 7: Protective Factors That Promote Healthy Youth Development 2.1. HOW TO READ THE CHARTS Community 1. Brief defin
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